Biology 411

BIOL 410:411 Human Anatomy and Physiology for Science Majors I and II

Prerequisites: A grade of “C” or better in BIOL 410

Credit Hours: (4)

Provides an in-depth introduction to human physiology and anatomy. The course will include an overview of major organ systems and processes as well as discussion of homeostatic mechanisms, physiological integration, dysfunction, and development. The course will incorporate aspects of organic chemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Laboratory will involve both cadaver dissection and active investigations of organismic physiology. Recommended for science majors, and students of any major who plan to enter medical or physician assistant programs. Not recommended for pre-nursing majors; ESHE students preparing for careers in athletic training, fitness/strength, health education, nutrition or sports administration; recreation students; or other non-science majors.

Detailed Description of Course

In 410, Lecture will typically include (but is not limited to) such topics as:

I. Physiological homeostasis
        a. Internal consistency in a varying environment
        b. Negative feedback and interaction with external stimuli
        c. Allostasis
II. Metabolism & Energetics
        a. Metabolism and catabolism of major nutrients (carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins)
        . Regulation of food intake
        c. Processes of thermoregulation
        d. Integration of all major systems in metabolic maintenance.
III. Dermal tissues
        a. Epidermal, dermal and hypodermal tissues
        b. Endodermis
        c. Specialized dermal substructures (hair, apocrine & merocrine glands)
        d. Diseases and disorders of the skin
IV. Osteonic tissues
        a. Bone structures and functions
        b. Bone growth & Wolff’s law
        c. PTH/Calcitonin balance
        d. Osteoclast/blast/cyte growth and regulation
        e. Dental morphology
        f. Morphology of tendons, ligaments, and supporting connective tissue in addition to bone.
        g. Diseases & disorders of bone
V. Muscular physiology
        a. Sliding filament theory
        b. Aerobic and anaerobic respiration
        c. Muscle diseases & disorders
VI. Cardiopulmonary function
        a.Cardiac control and function
        b.Endocrine regulation of blood pressure
        c. Integration of respiratory and cardiac physiology
        d. Lung volumetrics
        e. Cardiopulmonary disease and dysfunction
VII. Hematology
        a. Marrow and hematopoiesis
        b. Splenic function and hemolysis
        c. Erythropoietin
        d. Adaptations to altitudinal variation
        e. Hemoglobin transport capacities and affinity
        f. Transport of dissolved gases
        g. Blood typing
        h. Blood diseases & disorders
VIII. Immunology
        a. Hemostasis
        b. Leukogenesis
        c. Development, maintenance, and integration of specific and non-specific defenses
        d. Pathogens and infections agents
        e. Cancer
        f. Allergies & autoimmune diseases
        g. Immune disorders & diseases

In 411, Lecture will typically include (but is not limited to) such topics as:

IX. Neuroanatomy, Central and Peripheral Nervous System
        a. Neuronal morphology and neuronal subtypes
        b. Major brain areas and nuclei
        c. CNS integration and major sensory function
        d. PNS integration and major sensory function
        e. Sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of the ANS
        f. Major disorders of the nervous system
X. Neuroendocrinology and Endocrinology
        a. Signal-Receptor dynamics
        b. Molecular production pathways
        c. Binding globulins
        d. Metabolic and growth management
        e. HPG axis
        f. HPA axis
        g. Energy regulation
        h. Renin, angiotensin, aldosterone, ANP, ADH
        i. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters
        j. Dopamine, serotonin and other catecholamine hormones
        k. Endocrine disorders
XI. Reproductive & developmental physiology
        a. Male reproductive physiology & anatomy
        b. Female reproductive physiology & anatomy
        c. Hormonal regulation of reproduction
        e. Embryogenesis
        f. Placental function and fetal development
        g. Reproductive disorders
XII. Gerontology
        a. Physiology of aging
        b. Cellular aging, Hayflick limitations, apoptosis
XIII. Renal physiology
        a. Nephronic anatomy & function
        b. Dynamic regulation of water balance, electrolytes, and pH
        c. Kidney diseases & disorders
XIV. Gastrointestinal systemics
        a. Histology and anatomy of the GI tract
        b. Mechanisms of digestion
        c. pH & Enzymatics
        d. Methods of nutrient absorption
        e. Role of emulsification
        f. Dynamics of intestinal bacterial symbiosis
        g. GI tract diseases & disorders
XV. Hepatic function
        a. Liver macroanatomy
        b. Liver lobules
        c. Metabolic pathways of the liver
        d. Bile production
        e. Hepatitis & cirrhosis

Other topics that may become important through ongoing research in physiology or through changes in medical practice may be incorporated or substituted.

Laboratory may include (but is not limited to) such experiences as:

I. Identification of the human anatomical features, using cadaver tissue and physiological models, of all major systems: skeletal, musuclar, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, digestive, urinary and reproductive.
II. Utilization of various laboratory techniques to explore questions in physiological processes and anatomical features
III. Designing and maintaining experiments
IV. Collecting data and managing databases
V. Analyzing, synthesizing, and presenting physiological data and results
VI. Identifying, critiquing and utilizing scientific literature and/or scientific case studies

Detailed Description of Conduct of Course

The course will be taught as a lecture paired with group-based exploratory discussion of primary literature paired with an inquiry based laboratory component. Students will be introduced to basic concepts of the field during interactive lectures and familiarized with the material through the use of select examples in lab. Student groups will then be required to present and critique current research articles relevant to the subject in question. During these discussions students will be rewarded for accurately explaining and critiquing articles utilizing knowledge gleaned from the course, as well for proposing alterations or subsequent research projects that build on the study in question. In laboratory exercises students will learn through active dissection of cadavers and similar instructor demonstrated activities, as well as through guided experimentation, data collection and analyses. These and similar pedagogic strategies will provide students the opportunity to engage in interactive discussion and critical analysis, as well as improving verbal and written presentation skills.

The overall goal of the course is to familiarize students with a variety of topics incorporated under the general field of human anatomy and physiology. The course is intended to familiarize students with ongoing research and recent developments in the field, as well as to increase their appreciation for the synthesis, integration and application of knowledge gained from earlier courses. The course will also provide students with the analytical tools needed to deconstruct research within the field and to connect human physiology and anatomy to other fields of biological inquiry.

Student Goals and Objectives of the Course

Having successfully completed this course, the student will be able to:

- Demonstrate critical analysis and discussion skills related to key topics in human anatomy and physiology
- Demonstrate an understanding of how homeostasis is maintained under the pressures of a dynamic external environment.
- Demonstrate an understanding of how homeostasis is maintained under changing life history stages
- Describe mechanisms supporting homeostasis in multiple organ systems
- Describe interactions and integration of primary organ systems
- Demonstrate an understanding of developmental and infectious disease in relation to discussed organ systems
- Describe function, location and nomenclature of primary organ systems
- Describe organ system development and aging
- Demonstrate dissection skills and an understanding of anatomical features
- Describe how organs and tissues functions can be related to genetic, cellular and molecular features

Having successfully completed the laboratory component of this course, the student will be able to:

- Utilize appropriate methods in experimental design
- Manage, collect, analyze, synthesize and present data
- Demonstrate adept dissection skills
- Identify form and function of various human anatomical features from cadaver tissue as well as laboratory models
- Demonstrate an understanding of and utilize the application of various laboratory techniques and methods of analysis

Assessment Measures

Student comprehension may be assessed through quizzes, exams, laboratory activities, discussion, essays and presentations.  Tests may be designed so that the students must demonstrate synthesis and critical analysis.  

Other Course Information


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