500 BC -- Hipprocates - Hippocratic Oath -- physians must promise to practice

Early Physicians

800 AD -- Ishaq bin Ali Rahawi , a Muslim physician, wrote the Adab al-Tabib (Conduct of a Physician), the first

1400s - 1600s -- Renaissance -- Recover of ancient Greek medical texts begins process of re-evaluation

1500s -- Paracelsus , a physician during the Renaissance, re-envisions medicine See Wiki

1610 Galileo first proposes his support of the heliocentric worldview. He later recants his proposal

1700s - 1840s "Medical treatment (in England), and the medical response to illness, centered on the

1753 -- James Lind , a Scottish surgeon for the Royal Navy, writes A Treatise on the Scurvy See Wiki

1779 -- Johann Peter Frank , a German physician, writes strict ethical guidelines for public

1794 -- Sir Thomas Percival an English physician, writes first modern code of medical ethics See Wiki

1822 -- Louis Pasteur born Dec. 27 in Dole, France. (d. September 28, 1895) -- Pasteur is perhaps the best known

1830 -- Charles Babbage writes the book Reflections on the Decline of Science in England. This was one of books to catalog

1847 -- American Medical Association adopts first code of ethics See Wiki

1848 -- (13 October 1821 - 05 September 1902) German physician Rudolf (Carl) Virchow, later famed for cell theory, founds the

1854 -- John Snow, , doctor who broke the Boad Street pump and took direct action against the spread of cholera through polluted drinking water.

1856 -- Gregor Mendel, commonly known as "the father of genetics', began his studies on the reproduction on pea plants.

1900 -- Alice Hamilton, MD, begins studies of "occupational disease" among workers poisoned in the lead trades.

1927 -- The term "bioethics" is first coined by Fritz Jahr. See Wiki

1932-1972- The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiments were conducted by the US Public Health Service. Unethical treatment was given

1939 -- The United States begin the Manhattan Project to develop an atomic bomb. This was done after rumors that Nazi Germany was

1944 -- Josef Mengele performs gruesome human experiments in the Nazi concentration camp of Auschwitz. See Wiki

1947 -- Aldo Leopold , and American ecologist, publishes The Land Ethic - "dealing with man's relation to land and to the animals

1947 -- Judges of the Numbering Trials create the Nuremberg Code. They used it as a set of research principles to be used to

1948 -- Declaration of Geneva -- World Medical Association modern re-statement of the Hippocratic Oath, noting in part the duty

1947 - 1991 -- The United States is involved the the testing of radiation on unsuspecting human subjects. This led to the

1955 -- Jonas Salk discovers a cure for polio, which was a leading

1959 -- Henry Knowles Beecher (1904 --- 1976), an American scientists, writes "Experimentation in Man" for JAMA, detailed

1960s -- Joseph Fletcher (1905 - 1991) , American professor founds theory of situational ethics in the 1960s, pioneer in the field of bioethics.

1961--The Milgram Experiment was conducted to test how far a subject would go to earn approval of an authority figure. The

1964 -- Declaration of Helsinki -- World Medical Association agrees on a code of research ethics; most journal editors required

1970-- Van Rensselaer Potter, an American biochemist, suggests broader meaning for bioethics, including biosphere, a "global ethics,"

1971 -- Stanford Prison Experiment -- college students acted as prison guards or prisoners in a mock prison setting. The rash

1970s --The growing influence of ethics in contemporary medicine can be seen in the increasing use of Institutional Review Boards

1975-- The Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, organized by Paul Berg, proposes ethical guidelines for biotechnology uses and safety. See Wiki

1978--The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) is formed. It consists of a group of medical journal editors who

1979--The Belmont Report was drafted by the Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare in response to the Tuskegee Experiments. It

1980s -- Universities establish human subjects review committees.

1980s - 1990s -- Variety of bioethics journals established. See Wiki

1982 -- William Broad and Nicholas Wade publish Betrayers of the Truth: Fraud and Deceit in the Halls of Science.

1992 -- The Office of Research Integrity is formed.

1996 -- Turnitin.com was created. Large undergraduate classes at UC Berkely inspired the creation of the website, which aims

1997--COPE, [The Committee On Publication Ethics] was established in the UK. Its members consist of academic journal editors

2000s -- Unified approach to medical ethics -- See Peh-Med

2004-- eTBLAST was established. eTBLAST is a search engine designed to search similar texts within the MEDLINE

2005 -- United Nations Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights See Journal See Wiki

2008 -- Study on possible plagiarism and duplications using eTBLAST and Deja Vu publishes results: