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Industrial Hygiene

Asbestos in Construction

1.0  Introduction

An estimated 1.3 million employees in construction and general industry face significant asbestos exposure on the job. Heaviest exposures occur in the construction industry, particularly during the removal of asbestos during renovation or demolition. Employees are also likely to be exposed during the manufacture of asbestos products (such as textiles, friction products, insulation, and other building materials) and during automotive brake and clutch repair work. Asbestos is well recognized as a health hazard and is highly regulated.

2.0  Scope

These regulations apply to asbestos exposure in the following areas:

  • Demolition or recovery of structures where asbestos is present.
  • Removal or encapsulation of materials containing asbestos.
  • Construction, alteration, repair, maintenance, or renovation of structures that contain asbestos.
  • Installation of products containing asbestos.
  • Asbestos spill/emergency cleanup.
  • Transportation, disposal, and storage of asbestos at the site where construction activities are performed.
  • Housekeeping activities involving asbestos at the site where construction activities are performed.

3.0  Definitions

Aggressive method- removal or disturbance of building material by sanding, abrading, grinding or other method that breaks, crumbles, or disintegrates intact ACM.

Amended water- water to which a wetting agent has been added to increase the ability of the liquid to penetrate ACM.

Asbestos- includes chrysotile, amosite, crocidolite, tremolite asbestos, anthophyllite asbestos, actinolite asbestos, and any of these minerals that have been chemically treated and/or altered. For purposes of this standard, "asbestos" includes PACM.

Asbestos- containing material (ACM)- any material containing more than one percent asbestos.

Authorized person- any person authorized by the employer and required by work duties to be present in regulated areas.

Class I asbestos work- activities involving the removal of thermal system insulation (TSI) and surfacing ACM and PACM. These types of activities will not be conducted by university employees.

Class II asbestos work- activities involving the removal of ACM which is not thermal system insulation or surfacing material. This includes, but is not limited to, the removal of asbestos-containing wallboard, floor tile and sheeting, roofing and siding shingles, and construction mastics.

Class III asbestos work- repair and maintenance operations, where "ACM" including TSI and surfacing ACM and PACM, is likely to be disturbed.

Class IV asbestos work- maintenance and custodial activities during which employees contact but do not disturb ACM or PACM and activities to clean up dust, waste and debris resulting from Class I, II, and III activities.

Clean room- an uncontaminated room having facilities for the storage of street clothing and uncontaminated materials and equipment.

Closely resemble- the major workplace conditions which have contributed to the levels of historic asbestos exposure, and are no more protective than conditions of the current workplace.

Competent person- one who has received specialized training and is capable of identifying asbestos hazards in the workplace and selecting the appropriate control strategy for asbestos exposure and has the authority to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate hazards.

Critical barrier- one or more layers of plastic sealed over all openings into a work area or any other similarly placed physical barrier sufficient to prevent airborne asbestos from migrating to an adjacent area.

Decontamination area- an enclosed area adjacent and connected to the regulated area consisting of an equipment room, shower area, and clean room, that is used for the decontamination of workers, materials, and equipment.

Demolition- the wrecking or taking out of any load-supporting structural member and any related razing, removing, or stripping of asbestos products.

Disturbance- activities that disrupt, crumble, or generate visible debris from ACM or PACM. Disturbance includes cutting away small amounts of ACM and PACM that can be contained in one standard sized glove bag or waste bag in order to access a building component.

Employee exposure- that exposure to airborne asbestos that would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protective equipment.

Equipment room (change room)- a contaminated room located within the decontamination area that is supplied with impermeable bags or containers for the disposal of contaminated protective clothing and equipment.

Fiber- a particulate form of asbestos, five micrometers or longer, with a length-to-diameter ratio of at least three to one.

Glovebag- not more than a 60 x 60 inch impervious plastic bag-like enclosure affixed around an asbestos-containing material, with glove-like appendages through which material and tools may be handled.

High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter- a filter capable of trapping and retaining at least 99.97 percent of all mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter.

Homogeneous area- an area of surfacing material or thermal system insulation that is uniform in color and texture.

Intact- ACM that has not been crumbled, pulverized, or otherwise deteriorated.

Modification- a changed or altered procedure, material or component of a system, which replaces a procedure, material or component of a required system. Omitting a procedure or component, or reducing or diminishing the strength of a material or component of the system is not a modification.

Negative Initial Exposure Assessment- a demonstration by the employer, that employee exposure during an operation is expected to be consistently below the PELs.

PACM (presumed asbestos containing material)- thermal system insulation and surfacing material found in buildings constructed before 1980.

Project Designer- a person who has successfully completed the training requirements for an abatement project designer established by 40 U.S.C. Sec. 763.90(g).

Regulated area- an area established by the employer to mark areas where Class I, II, and III asbestos work is conducted, and any adjoining area where debris and waste may accumulate; and a work area where airborne levels of asbestos may exceed the permissible exposure limit.

Removal- all operations where ACM and/or PACM is taken out or stripped from structures or substrates, including demolition operations.

Renovation- the modifying of any existing structure or portion.

Repair- overhauling, rebuilding, reconstructing, or reconditioning of structures or substrates, including encapsulation or other repair of ACM or PACM attached to structures or substrates.

Surfacing material- material that is sprayed, troweled-on or applied to surfaces (such as acoustical plaster on ceilings and fireproofing materials on structural members).

Surfacing ACM- surfacing material which contains more than 1% asbestos.

Thermal system insulation (TSI)- ACM applied to pipes, fittings, boilers, breeching, tanks, ducts or other structural components to prevent heat loss or gain.

4.0  Permissible Exposure Limits (PELS)

Time-weighted average limit (TWA)

  1. Employees will not be exposed to an airborne concentration of asbestos in excess of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air as an eight (8) hour time-weighted average (TWA).

Excursion limit

  1. Employees will not be exposed to an airborne concentration of asbestos in excess of 1.0 fiber per cubic centimeter of air as averaged over a sampling period of thirty (30) minutes.
     

5.0  Multi-employer Worksites

  1. An employer performing work requiring the establishment of a regulated area shall inform other employers on the site of the nature of the work with asbestos and/or PACM, of the requirements pertaining to regulated areas, and measures taken to ensure that employees of the other employers are not exposed to asbestos.
  2. Asbestos hazards shall be abated by the contractor who created the source of asbestos contamination.
  3. All employers shall comply with applicable protective provisions to protect their employees. For example, if employees working immediately adjacent to a Class I asbestos job are exposed to asbestos due to inadequate containment, their employer shall either remove them from the area until the breach is repaired; or perform an initial exposure assessment.
  4. Employers of employees working adjacent to regulated areas shall check daily to determine the integrity of the enclosure and/or the effectiveness of the control method used by the asbestos contractor to assure that asbestos fibers do not migrate to adjacent areas.
  5. All general contractors on a construction project shall exercise general supervisory authority over the work covered by this standard, even if the general contractor is not qualified to serve as the asbestos "competent person." As supervisor of the entire project, the general contractor shall determine if the asbestos contractor is in compliance with this standard.

6.0  Regulated Areas

  1. All Class I, II and III asbestos work will be conducted within regulated areas. Class IV operations will be conducted in a regulated area if airborne concentrations of asbestos may exceed a PEL.
  2. The regulated area will be demarcated in any manner that minimizes the number of persons within the area and protects persons outside the area from exposure to airborne asbestos. If critical barriers or negative pressure enclosures are used, they may demarcate the regulated area. Appropriate signage will be displayed.
  3. Access to regulated areas will be limited to authorized persons.
  4. All persons entering a regulated area where they are required to wear respirators will be supplied with an appropriate respirator.
  5. Employees will not eat, drink, smoke, chew tobacco or gum, or apply cosmetics in the regulated area.
  6. Asbestos work performed within regulated areas will be supervised by a competent person.

7.0  Exposure Assessments and Monitoring

General monitoring

  1. Where exposure monitoring is required, determinations of exposure will be made from breathing zone air samples that are representative of the 8-hour TWA and 30-minute short-term exposures of each employee.
  2. Representative 8-hour TWA exposures will be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing full-shift exposure for employees in each work area. Representative 30-minute short-term exposures will be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing 30-minute exposures associated with operations that are most likely to produce exposures above the excursion limit for employees in each work area.

Initial exposure assessment

  1. A "competent person" will conduct an exposure assessment immediately before or at the initiation of an operation that may expose a worker to asbestos to determine expected exposures. The assessment must be completed in time to comply with requirements which are triggered by exposure data or the lack of a "negative exposure assessment," and to provide information to assure that all control systems are appropriate for that operation and will work properly.
  2. Unless a negative exposure assessment has been made, the initial exposure assessment will, if feasible, be based on employee exposure monitoring The assessment will take into consideration the monitoring results and all information which indicate employee exposure to asbestos, including any previous monitoring which indicate the levels of asbestos likely to be encountered on the job.


Negative exposure assessment

  1. For any one specific asbestos job, employee exposures may be shown to be below the PELs by data that conforms to the following criteria:

Objective data demonstrating that the material cannot release airborne fibers in concentrations exceeding the PELs under work conditions having the greatest potential for releasing asbestos.
Where exposure monitoring of a prior asbestos job was performed within 12 months, monitoring was performed in compliance with the asbestos standard; and the data were obtained under conditions that "closely resemble" those used in the current operations, the operations were conducted by employees whose training and experience are similar to that of current employees, and these data show that under the current conditions it is unlikely that the PEL will be exceeded.
The results of initial exposure monitoring of the current job made from breathing zone air samples that are representative of the 8-hour TWA and 30-minute short-term exposures of each employee covering operations which are most likely to result in exposures over the PELs.

Periodic monitoring

  1. Daily monitoring will be conducted that is representative of the exposure of each employee performing Class I or II work unless a negative exposure assessment for the operation has been made.
  2. For Class III and IV operations periodic monitoring will be conducted of all work where exposures are expected to exceed a PEL, at intervals sufficient to document the validity of the exposure prediction. When all employees required to be monitored daily are equipped with supplied-air respirators, or other positive pressure mode respirator, daily monitoring is not necessary.
  3. Exposure monitoring will be performed whenever there has been a change in personnel or work practices that may result in additional exposures above the PELs. Such additional monitoring is required regardless of whether a "negative exposure assessment" was previously produced for a specific job.

Termination of monitoring

  1. If the periodic monitoring reveals that employee exposures are below the permissible exposure limit and excursion limit, monitoring may be discontinued for those employees whose exposures are represented by the monitoring.

Employee notification of monitoring results

  1. Affected employees will be notified of monitoring results as soon as possible following receipt of monitoring results.
  2. Affected employees will be notified of the results of monitoring in writing either individually or by posting at a centrally located place.

Observation of monitoring

  1. Affected employees and their designated representatives will be provided with an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to asbestos.
  2. When observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to asbestos requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the observer shall use such clothing and equipment.

8.0 Methods of Compliance

General Engineering controls and work practices

  1. The following engineering controls and work practices will be used in all operations regardless of the levels of exposure:
    1. Vacuum cleaners equipped with HEPA filters to collect all debris and dust containing ACM and PACM, except for roofing material.
    2. Wet methods to control employee exposures during asbestos handling, removal, cutting, and cleanup, except where the use of wet methods are not feasible or will create safety hazards.
    3. Prompt clean-up and disposal of wastes and debris contaminated with asbestos in leak-tight containers, except in roofing operations.
  2. In addition to the above measures, the following control methods will be used to achieve compliance with the PELs:
    1. Local exhaust ventilation equipped with HEPA filter dust collection systems.
    2. Enclosure or isolation of processes producing asbestos dust.
    3. Ventilation of the regulated area to move contaminated air away from the breathing zone of employees and toward a filtration or collection device equipped with a HEPA filter.
  3. When engineering and work practice controls described above are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure below the PELs, they shall be used to reduce exposures to the lowest levels attainable and shall be supplemented by the use of respiratory protection.
  4. The following work practices and engineering controls will not be used for work related to asbestos, regardless of levels of exposure or the results of initial exposure assessments:
    1. High-speed abrasive disc saws that are not equipped with point of cut ventilator or enclosures with HEPA filtered exhaust air.
    2. Compressed air used to remove asbestos, unless the compressed air is used in conjunction with an enclosed ventilation system designed to capture the dust created by the compressed air.
    3. Dry sweeping, shoveling or other dry clean-up of dust and debris containing ACM and PACM.
    4. Employee rotation as a means of reducing employee exposure to asbestos.

Work practices and engineering controls for class II work

  1. All Class II work will be supervised by a competent person.
  2. For all indoor Class II jobs, where a negative exposure assessment has not been produced, or if changed conditions indicate there may be exposure above the PEL or where ACM is not removed in a substantially intact state, one of the following methods will be used to ensure that airborne asbestos does not migrate from the regulated area:
    1. Critical barriers will be placed over all openings to the regulated area.
    2. Another barrier or isolation method will be used which prevents the migration of airborne asbestos from the regulated area, as verified by perimeter area monitoring or clearance monitoring.
  3. Impermeable dropcloths will be placed on surfaces beneath all removal activity.

Controls for specific Class II operations

Floor Tiles

  1. For removing vinyl and asphalt flooring materials which contain ACM or, in buildings constructed before 1980, the absence of ACM has not been verified, employees will comply with the following work practices:
    1. Flooring or its backing will not be sanded.
    2. Vacuums equipped with HEPA filter, disposable dust bag, and metal floor tool (no brush) will be used to clean floors.
    3. Resilient sheeting will be removed by cutting, with wetting of the snip point and wetting during delamination. Rip-up of resilient sheet floor material is prohibited.
    4. All scraping of residual adhesive and/or backing will be performed using wet methods.
    5. Dry sweeping is prohibited.
    6. Mechanical chipping is prohibited unless performed in a negative pressure enclosure.
    7. Tiles will be removed intact, unless intact removal is not possible. Wetting may be omitted if tiles can be removed intact when heated.
  2. Resilient flooring material including associated mastic and backing will be assumed to contain asbestos unless it is determined to be asbestos-free using recognized analytical techniques.

Roofing Material

  1. To remove roofing material which contains ACM the following work practices will be followed:
    1. Roofing material will be removed in an intact state if feasible.Wet methods will be used to remove roofing materials that are not intact unless wet methods are not feasible or will create safety hazards.
    2. Cutting machines will be continuously misted during use, unless a competent person determines that misting substantially decreases worker safety.
    3. When using a power roof cutter to remove asbestos-containing roofing felts and an aggregate surface, dust will be collected by a HEPA dust collector. When removing asbestos-containing roofing felts and a smooth surface using a power roof cutter, the dust will be collected by a HEPA dust collector, or by gently sweeping and then completely wiping up the wet dust.
    4. Asbestos-containing material that has been removed from a roof will not be dropped to the ground. It will be carried or passed to the ground by hand, or lowered to the ground via covered, dust-tight chute, crane or hoist.
    5. Any ACM that is not intact will be lowered to the ground as soon as practicable, but no later than the end of the work shift. While the material remains on the roof it will be kept wet, placed in a waste bag, or wrapped in plastic sheeting.
    6. Intact ACM will be lowered to the ground as soon as is practicable, but no later than the end of the work shift. Upon being lowered, unwrapped material will be transferred to a closed receptacle in a manner that minimizes dust.
    7. Roof level ventilation air intakes will be isolated or the ventilation system shut down.
  2. Removal or repair of sections of intact roofing less than 25 square feet does not require wet methods or HEPA vacuuming as long as manual methods keep the material intact and no visible dust is created. In determining if a job involves less than 25 square feet, all removal and repair work performed on the same roof on the same day shall be included.

Siding, transite panel, shingles (other than roofs)

  1. When removing cementitious asbestos-containing siding and shingles or transite panels containing ACM on building exteriors (other than roofs) the following work practices will be followed:
    1. Cutting, abrading or breaking siding, shingles, or transite panels, is prohibited unless methods less likely to result in asbestos fiber release cannot be used.
    2. Each panel or shingle will be sprayed with amended water prior to removal.
    3. Unwrapped or unbagged panels or shingles will be immediately lowered to the ground via covered dust-tight chute, crane or hoist, or placed in an impervious waste bag or wrapped in plastic sheeting and lowered no later than the end of the work shift.
    4. Nails will be cut with flat, sharp instruments.

Gaskets

  1. When removing gaskets containing ACM, the following work practices will be followed:
    1. If a gasket is visibly deteriorated and unlikely to be removed intact, removal will be undertaken within a glovebag.
    2. The gasket will be immediately placed in a disposal container.
    3. Any scraping to remove residue must be performed wet.

Other Materials

  1. When performing any other Class II removal of ACM for which specific controls have not been listed the following work practices will be complied with:
    1. The material will be thoroughly wetted with amended water prior to and during its removal.
    2. The material will be removed in an intact state if possible
    3. Cutting, abrading or breaking the material is prohibited unless methods less likely to result in asbestos fiber release are not feasible.
    4. Asbestos-containing material removed, will be immediately bagged or wrapped, or kept wetted until transferred to a closed receptacle, no later than the end of the work shift.

Alternative Work Practices and Controls

  1. Instead of the work practices and controls listed above, different or modified engineering and work practice controls may be used if the following provision is complied with:
    1. A competent person shall evaluate the work area, the projected work practices and the engineering controls, and shall certify in writing, that the different or modified controls are adequate to reduce employee exposure to below the PELs under all expected conditions and the method meets the requirements of this standard. The evaluation shall be based on data representing employee exposure during the use of the method under conditions which closely resemble those which will be used for the current job, and by employees whose training and experience are equivalent to employees who will perform the job.

Work practices and engineering controls for Class III asbestos work

  1. Class III asbestos work will be conducted using engineering and work practice controls which minimize exposure to employees.
  2. The work will be performed using wet methods.
  3. To the extent feasible, the work will be performed using local exhaust ventilation.
  4. Where the disturbance involves drilling, cutting, abrading, sanding, chipping, breaking, or sawing of thermal system insulation or surfacing material, impermeable drop cloths will be used, and the operation isolated using mini-enclosures, glove bag systems, or another isolation method.
  5. If a "negative exposure assessment" has not been produced, or if monitoring shows the PEL has been exceeded, the area will be contained using impermeable dropcloths and plastic barriers or their equivalent, or the operation will be isolated using an approved control system.
  6. Employees performing Class III jobs, which involve the disturbance of thermal system insulation or surfacing material, or where a "negative exposure assessment" has not been produced or where monitoring results show a PEL has been exceeded, will wear respirators.

Class IV Asbestos Work

  1. Employees will promptly clean up of debris containing ACM or PACM using wet methods and HEPA vacuums.
  2. Employees who clean up waste and debris in areas where friable thermal system insulation or surfacing material is accessible, will assume that such waste and debris contain asbestos.

Alternative methods of compliance for installation, removal, repair, and maintenance of certain roofing and pipeline coating materials

This section applies when installing, removing, repairing, or maintaining intact pipeline asphaltic wrap, or roof cements, mastics, coatings, or flashings which contain asbestos fibers encapsulated or coated by bituminous or resinous compounds.

  1. Before work begins and as needed during the job, a competent person shall conduct an inspection of the worksite and determine that the roofing material is intact and will likely remain intact.
  2. The material will not be sanded, abraded, or ground. Manual methods which keep the material intact will be used.
  3. Material that has been removed from a roof will not be dropped to the ground. It will be carried or passed to the ground by hand, or lowered via covered, dust-tight chute, crane or hoist. All such material will be removed from the roof as soon as practicable, but no later than the end of the work shift.
  4. If roofing products which contain asbestos are installed on non-residential roofs the Safety Office must be notified of the presence and location of such materials no later than the end of the job.
  5. All removal or disturbance of pipeline asphaltic wrap will be performed using wet methods.

9.0 Respiratory Protection

General

Respirators will be used in the following circumstances:

  1. During all Class I asbestos jobs.
  2. During all Class II work where ACM is not removed in a substantially intact state.
  3. During all Class II and III work which is not performed using wet methods, provided, that respirators are not required during removal of ACM from sloped roofs when a negative exposure assessment has been made and the ACM is removed in an intact state.
  4. During all Class II and III asbestos jobs where a "negative exposure assessment" has not been produced.
  5. During all Class III jobs where TSI or surfacing ACM or PACM is being disturbed.
  6. During all Class IV work performed within regulated areas where employees performing other work are required to wear respirators.
  7. During all work covered by this section where employees are exposed above the PELs.
  8. In emergencies.

Respirator selection

  1. Where respirators are used, the Safety Office will provide the appropriate respirator (Table 1) and will ensure that the employee uses the respirator.
  2. Respirators will be approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  3. A powered, air-purifying respirator will be supplied to employees in lieu of a negative-pressure respirator whenever:
    1. An employee chooses to use this type of respirator.
    2. This respirator will provide adequate protection to the employee.
  4. Employees will be notified that they may request a powered, air-purifying respirator in lieu of a negative pressure respirator.

Table 1. Respiratory Protection for Asbestos Fibers

Airborne concentration of asbestos Minimum required respirator
Less than 1 f/cc (10 X PEL) Half-mask air purifying with HEPA filters
Less than 5 f/cc (50 X PEL) Full facepiece with HEPA filters
Less than 10 f/cc (100 X PEL) Powered air-purifying respirator with HEPA filters
Less than 100 f/cc (1,000 X PEL) Full facepiece supplied air respirator operated in pressure demand mode
Gtr than 100 f/cc (1,000 X PEL) or unknown concentration Full facepiece supplied air respirator operated in pressure demand mode, equipped with an auxiliary positive pressure SCBA

Respirator Program

  1. Where respiratory protection is used, a respirator program will be developed in accordance with  the OSHA Regulations for General Industry.
  2. Employees who use a filter respirator will change the filter whenever an increase in breathing resistance is detected. An adequate supply of filters will be maintained in the Safety Office.
  3. Employees who wear respirators will be permitted to wash their faces and respirator facepieces whenever necessary to prevent skin irritation associated with respirator use.
  4. No employee shall use a respirator if a physician determines that the safety or health of the employee will be impaired by the use of a respirator. The employee will be assigned to another job or given the opportunity to transfer to a different position, in the same geographical area, and with the same seniority, status, and rate of pay and other job benefits he or she had just prior to such transfer, if such a position is available.

Respirator fit testing

  1. The respirator issued to the employee will exhibit the least possible facepiece leakage and fit properly.
  2. A quantitative or qualitative fit test will be preformed by the Safety Office at the time of initial fitting and at least every six months thereafter for each employee wearing a negative-pressure respirator. The qualitative fit tests may be used only for testing the fit of half-mask respirators or of full-facepiece respirators where they are worn at levels at which half-facepiece respirators are permitted.

10.0 Protective Clothing

  1. Protective clothing, such as coveralls or similar whole-body clothing, head coverings, gloves, and foot coverings will be worn by employees exposed to airborne concentrations of asbestos that exceed the PELs, or for which a required negative exposure assessment is not produced.
  2. Protective clothing will be worn during Class I operations which involves the removal of over 25 linear or 10 square feet of TSI or surfacing ACM or PACM.
  3. Contaminated clothing will be laundered so as to prevent the release of airborne asbestos in excess of the PELs. Any person who gives contaminated clothing to another person for laundering will inform that person of this requirement.
  4. Contaminated clothing will be transported in sealed, properly labeled impermeable bags.
  5. The competent person will examine worksuits worn by employees at least once per workshift for rips or tears. Rips or tears will be immediately mended, or the worksuit immediately replaced.

11.0 Hygiene Facilities and Practices for Employees

Requirements for Class I Operations

  1. Class I operations involving over 25 linear or 10 square feet of TSI or surfacing ACM or PACM will be performed in accordance with 1926.1101(j)(l) of the OSHA Standard. University employee will not perform class I operations.

Requirements for Class I work involving less than 25 linear or 10 square feet of TSI or surfacing ACM or PACM, and for Class II and III operations where exposures exceed a PEL or where no negative exposure assessment has been done.

  1. An equipment room or area that is adjacent to the regulated area which is covered by an impermeable drop cloth on the floor will be established for the decontamination of employees and their equipment
  2. The area must be of sufficient size as to accommodate cleaning of equipment and removing personal protective equipment without spreading contamination beyond the area (as determined by visible accumulations).
  3. Work clothing must be cleaned with a HEPA vacuum before removal.
  4. All equipment and surfaces of containers filled with ACM must be cleaned prior to removal from the equipment room or area.
  5. Employees will enter and exit the regulated area through the equipment room or area

Requirements for Class IV Work

  1. Employees performing Class IV work within a regulated area will comply with the hygiene practice required of employees performing work with a higher classification. For work in unregulated areas, decontamination facilities shall be provided to employees cleaning up debris which is TSI or surfacing ACM or PACM.

Smoking in Work Areas

  1. Employees will not smoke in work areas where they are occupationally exposed to asbestos.

12.0 Communication of Hazards

Installed asbestos containing building material

  1. The university will determine if TSI and sprayed or troweled on surfacing materials in buildings contains asbestos. Asphalt and vinyl flooring material installed before 1980 must be assumed to contain asbestos unless known not to contain asbestos. When communicating information to employees PACM shall be identified as ACM.

Duties of Employers

  1. Before work is begun, the presence, location, and quantity of ACM and/or PACM at the work site will be determined by the Safety Office.
  2. The following persons will be notified of the presence, location and quantity of ACM or PACM, at the work site. Notification will be in writing, or by personal communication:
    1. Prospective employers applying or bidding for work whose employees are expected to work in or adjacent to these areas.
    2. Employees of the university who will work in or adjacent to areas containing asbestos.
    3. On multi-employer worksites, all employers who perform work within or adjacent to areas containing such materials.
    4. Tenants who will occupy areas containing such material.
  3. Within 10 days of the completion of work, contractors shall inform the university of the current location and quantity of PACM and/or ACM remaining in the area and final monitoring results, if any.
  4. All employers who discover ACM and/or PACM on a worksite must convey information concerning the presence, location and quantity of the newly discovered ACM and/or PACM to the Safety Office within 24 hours.

Criteria to negate the designation of installed material as PACM

  1. At any time, the university may demonstrate that PACM does not contain asbestos. The university is not required to communicate this information to employees. However the information supporting the determination that PACM does not contain asbestos will be retained in the Safety Office.
  2. The following may be used to demonstrate that PACM does not contain more than 1 percent asbestos:
    1. Conducting an inspection that meets the requirements of AHERA (40 CFR Part 763, Subpart E) which demonstrates that the material is not ACM.
    2. Performing tests that show ACM is not present in the material. These tests shall include analysis of bulk samples collected in the manner described in 40 CFR 763.86. The tests shall be conducted by an accredited inspector or a CIH. Analysis of samples shall be performed by accredited laboratories.
  3. The university may demonstrate that flooring material including mastic and backing does not contain asbestos, by a determination of an industrial hygienist based upon recognized analytical techniques showing that the material is not ACM.

13.0 Signs

  • At the entrance to mechanical rooms that contain ACM and/or PACM, signs will be posted that identify the material present, its location, and appropriate work practices to ensure that ACM and/or PACM will not be disturbed.
  • Warning signs that demarcate a regulated area will be provided and displayed at each location where a regulated area is required. These signs shall bear the following information:

DANGER
ASBESTOS
CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

  • Where the use of respirators and protective clothing is required in the regulated area, warning signs shall include the following:

RESPIRATORS AND PROTECTION CLOTHING ARE REQUIRED IN THIS AREA

14.0 Labels

  • Labels shall be fastened to all products containing asbestos and to all containers containing asbestos, including waste containers. Where feasible, installed asbestos products shall contain a visible label.
  • Labels shall be printed in large, bold letters on a contrasting background and contain the following information:

DANGER
CONTAINS ASBESTOS FIBERS
AVOID CREATING DUST
CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD
DO NOT BREATHE FIBERS

  • The requirement to label products do not apply where:
    • Asbestos fibers have been modified by a bonding agent, coating, binder, or other material that prevents release of airborne concentrations of asbestos fibers in excess of the PELs.
    • Asbestos is present in a product in concentrations less than 1.0 percent.
  • When previously installed PACM or ACM is identified; labels or signs must be affixed or posted so that employees will be notified of what materials contain PACM or ACM. These labels will be posted in areas where they will clearly be noticed by employees who are likely to be exposed, such as at the entrance to mechanical rooms.

15.0 Employee Training

  1. A training program will be instituted for all employees who are likely to be exposed in excess of a PEL and for all asbestos workers.
  2. Training will be provided prior to the time of initial assignment and at least annually thereafter.

Class I and II Operations

  1. Training for Class I and II operations that require the use of critical barriers (or equivalent methods) and/or negative pressure enclosures will be equivalent to the EPA Model Accreditation Plan (MAP) asbestos abatement workers training (40 CFR Part 763, subpart E, appendix C).
  2. For Class II work with asbestos containing roofing materials, flooring materials, siding materials, ceiling tiles, transite panels, and other materials training will include specific work practices and controls. The course will include "hands-on" training and take at least eight hours.

Class III Operations

  1. Training for Class III employees will be consistent with EPA requirements for training of maintenance and custodial staff described in 40 CFR 763.92(a)(2). The course shall include "hands-on" training and take at least 16 hours.

Class IV Operations

  1. Training for employees performing Class IV operations will be consistent with EPA requirements for training of maintenance and custodial staff contained in 40 CFR 763.92(a)(1). The course shall include information concerning the locations of thermal system insulation, surfacing ACM/PACM, asbestos containing flooring material, flooring material where the absence of asbestos has not yet been certified; and instruction in recognition of damage, deterioration, and delamination of asbestos containing building materials. The course will take at least two hours.

Training Program

  • The following general information must be included in the training program:
    • Methods of recognizing asbestos, including the requirement to presume that certain building materials contain asbestos.
    • The health effects associated with asbestos exposure.
    • The relationship between smoking and asbestos in producing lung cancer.
    • The nature of operations that could result in exposure to asbestos, the importance of controls to minimize exposure including engineering controls, work practices, respirators, housekeeping procedures, hygiene facilities, protective clothing, decontamination procedures, emergency procedures, and waste disposal procedures..
    • The purpose, proper use, fitting instructions, and limitations of respirators.
    • Medical surveillance program requirements.
    • The content of this program.
    • The names, addresses and phone numbers of public health organizations which provide information, and/or conduct programs concerning smoking cessation.
    • The requirements for posting signs and affixing labels.
  • Written materials relating to the employee training program, including a copy of this program will be made readily available to affected employees.

16.0 Housekeeping

  1. Where vacuuming methods are selected, HEPA filtered vacuuming equipment must be used. The equipment will be used and emptied in a manner that minimizes the reentry of asbestos into the workplace.
  2. Asbestos waste will be collected and disposed of in sealed, labeled, impermeable bags or other closed, labeled, impermeable containers.
  3. Care of asbestos-containing flooring material:
    1. Sanding of flooring material is prohibited.
    2. Stripping of finishes will be conducted using wet methods and low abrasion pads at speeds lower than 300.
    3. Burnishing or dry buffing may be performed only on flooring which has sufficient finish so that the pad cannot contact the flooring material.
  4. Waste, debris and accompanying dust in an area containing accessible thermal system insulation or surfacing ACM/PACM or visibly deteriorated ACM:
    1. Will not be dusted or swept dry, or vacuumed without using a HEPA filter.
    2. Will be promptly cleaned up and disposed of in leak tight containers.

17.0 Medical Surveillance

Employees covered

  1. A medical surveillance program will be instituted for all employees who are engaged in Class I, II or III work for a combined total of 30 or more days per year, or are exposed above a PEL. A day will not be counted if work is done on intact material for less than one hour and a worker adheres fully to the required work practices.
  2. For employees required to wear a negative pressure respirator, the university will ensure employees are physically able to perform the work. This determination will be made under the supervision of a physician.

Examination

  1. All medical examinations and procedures will be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician. Examinations will be provided at no cost to employees and at a reasonable time and place.
  2. Persons other than licensed physicians who administer a pulmonary function test shall complete a training course in spirometry sponsored by an appropriate academic or professional institution.
  3. Medical examinations and consultations will be made available employees on the following schedules:
    1. Prior to assignment in an area where negative-pressure respirators are worn.
    2. When the employee is assigned to an area where exposure to asbestos may be above the PEL for 30 or more days per year, or engage in Class II, or III work for a combined total of 30 or more days per year, a medical examination must be given within 10 working days following the thirtieth day of exposure and at least annually thereafter.
    3. If a physician determines that any examination should be provided more frequently than specified, the examination will be provided at the frequencies specified by the physician.
    4. No medical examination is required if adequate records show that the employee has been examined within the past 1-year period.
  4. Medical examinations will include:
    1. A medical and work history with special emphasis directed to the pulmonary, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems.
    2. On initial examination and for the annual examination, the standardized questionnaire contained in Appendix D of the OSHA regulations (1926.1101).
    3. A physical examination directed to the pulmonary and gastrointestinal systems, including a chest x-ray if requested by the physician, and pulmonary function tests.
    4. Any other examinations or tests deemed necessary by the physician.
  5. The following information will be provided to the examining physician:
    1. A copy of  the OSHA regulations (1926. 1101)
    2. A description of the employee's duties as they relate to asbestos exposure.
    3. The employee's representative exposure level.
    4. A description of any personal protective and respiratory equipment used.
    5. Information from previous medical examinations that is not otherwise available to the examining physician.
  6. A written opinion will be obtained from the examining physician. This written opinion will contain the results of the medical examination and include:
    1. The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any medical conditions that would place the employee at an increased risk of health impairment from exposure to asbestos.
    2. Any recommended limitations on the use of personal protective equipment such as respirators.
    3. A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and of any medical conditions that may result from asbestos exposure.
    4. A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the increased risk of lung cancer attributable to the combined effect of smoking and asbestos exposure.
  7. The physician will be instructed not to reveal specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure to asbestos.
  8. A copy of the physician's written opinion will be given to the affected employee within 30 days from its receipt.

18.0 Recordkeeping

Objective Data

  1. Where objective data has been used to demonstrate that products made from or containing asbestos are not capable of releasing fibers in concentrations above the PELs under the conditions of use, a record of this data will be maintained in the Safety Office.
  2. The record will include at least the following information:
    1. The product qualifying for exemption.
    2. The source of the objective data.
    3. The testing protocol, results of testing, and/or analysis of the material for the release of asbestos.
    4. A description of the operation exempted and how the data support the exemption.
    5. Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exemption.
  3. Where the university has received information concerning the identification, location and quantity of ACM and PACM, written records will be maintained for the duration of ownership and shall be transferred to successive owners.

Exposure Measurements

  1. A record willl be maintained by the Safety Office of all measurements taken to monitor employee exposure to asbestos. This record will include at least the following information:
    1. The date of measurement.
    2. The operation involving exposure to asbestos.
    3. Sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy.
    4. Number, duration, and results of samples taken.
    5. Type of protective devices worn, if any.
    6. Name, social security number, and exposure of the employees.
  2. Records will be maintained for at least thirty years.

Medical Surveillance

  1. A record will be maintained in the Safety Office for each employee. The record will include at least the following information:
    1. The name and social security number of the employee.
    2. A copy of the employee's medical examination results, including the medical history, questionnaire responses, results of any tests, and physician's recommendations.
    3. Physician's written opinions.
    4. Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to asbestos.
    5. A copy of the information provided to the physician as required by this section.
  2. This record will be maintained for the duration of employment plus thirty years.

Training Records

  1. Employee training records will be maintained by the Safety Office for one year beyond the last date of employment.

Availability

  1. Upon written request, all records required by this section will be made available to the Assistant Secretary and the Director for examination and copying.
  2. Upon request, exposure records will be made available for examination and copying to affected employees, former employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary.
  3. Upon request, medical records will be made available for examination and copying to the subject employee, anyone having the specific written consent of the subject employee, and the Assistant Secretary.

19.0 Competent Person

Duties

  1. On all construction worksites covered by this program, a competent person will be designated that has the qualifications and authority to ensure worker safety and health.
  2. The competent person will conduct frequent and regular inspections of the job site, materials, and equipment.
  3. For Class I jobs, on-site inspections will be made at least once during each work shift, and upon employee request.
  4. For Class II, III, and IV jobs, on-site inspections will be made at intervals sufficient to assess whether conditions have changed, and at any reasonable time at employee request.
  5. On all worksites where employees are engaged in Class I or II asbestos work, the competent person will perform or supervise the following duties, as applicable:
    1. Set up the regulated area, enclosure, or other containment.
    2. Ensure (by on-site inspection) the integrity of the enclosure or containment.
    3. Set up procedures to control entry to and exit from the enclosure and/or area.
    4. Supervise all employee exposure monitoring.
    5. Ensure that employees working within the enclosure and/or using glove bags wear respirators and protective clothing.
    6. Ensure through on-site supervision, that employees set up, use and remove engineering controls, and use work practices and personal protective equipment in compliance with all requirements.
    7. Ensure that employees use the hygiene facilities and observe proper decontamination procedures.
    8. Ensure that notification requirements are met.

Training for the competent person

  1. For Class I and II asbestos work the competent person shall be trained in all aspects of asbestos removal and handling, including: abatement, installation, contents of this standard; identification of asbestos; and other practices for reducing hazards. Such training shall be obtained in a comprehensive course for supervisors that meets the criteria of EPA's Model Accredited Plan (40 CFR part 763, subpart E, Appendix C) or its equivalent. The course shall be conducted by an EPA-approved or state-approved training provider, certified by EPA or the state.
  2. For Class III and IV asbestos work, the competent person shall be trained in aspects of asbestos handling appropriate for the nature of the work, to include procedures for setting up glove bags and mini-enclosures, practices for reducing asbestos exposures, use of wet methods, contents of this standard, and identification of asbestos. Such training shall include successful completion of a course that is consistent with EPA requirements for training of maintenance and custodial staff as set forth at 40 CFR 763.92(a)(2), or its equivalent.

Asbestos in General Industry

1.0 Introduction

An estimated 1.3 million employees in construction and general industry face significant asbestos exposure on the job. Heaviest exposures occur in the construction industry, particularly during the removal of asbestos during renovation or demolition. Employees may also be exposed in general industry during the manufacture of asbestos products (such as textiles, friction products, insulation, and other building materials), during automotive brake and clutch repair work, and when conducting housekeeping activities. Asbestos is well recognized as a health hazard and is highly regulated.

2.0 Scope

This section applies to occupational exposures to asbestos in general industry. It does not apply to construction work.

3.0 Definitions

Asbestos- includes chrysotile, amosite, crocidolite, tremolite asbestos, anthophyllite asbestos, actinolite asbestos, and any of these minerals that have been chemically treated and/or altered.

Asbestos containing material (ACM)- any material containing more than 1% asbestos.

Authorized person- any person authorized by the employer and required by work duties to be present in regulated areas.

Building/facility owner- the legal entity, including a lessee, which exercises control over management and record keeping functions relating to a building and/or facility in which activities covered by this program take place.

Employee exposure- that exposure to airborne asbestos that would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protective equipment.

Fiber- a particulate form of asbestos 5 micrometers or longer, with a length-to-diameter ratio of at least 3 to 1.

High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter- a filter capable of trapping and retaining at least 99.97 percent of 0.3 micrometer diameter particles.

Homogeneous area- an area of surfacing material or thermal system insulation that is uniform in color and texture.

PACM- presumed asbestos containing material.

Presumed asbestos containing material- thermal system insulation and surfacing material found in buildings constructed before 1980.

Regulated area- an area where airborne concentrations of asbestos may exceed the permissible exposure limits.

Surfacing ACM- surfacing material which contains more than 1 percent asbestos.

Surfacing material- material that is sprayed, troweled-on or otherwise applied to surfaces (such as acoustical plaster on ceilings and fireproofing materials on structural members.

Thermal System Insulation (TSI)- ACM applied to pipes, fittings, boilers, breeching, tanks, ducts or other structural components to prevent heat loss or gain.

Thermal System Insulation ACM- thermal system insulation which contains more than 1 percent asbestos.

4.0 Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)

  1. Employees shall not be exposed to an airborne concentration of asbestos in excess of 0.1 fibers per cubic centimeter of air, measured as an eight-hour time-weighted average.
  2. Employees shall not be exposed to an airborne concentration of asbestos in excess of 1.0 fiber per cubic centimeter of air, averaged over a sampling period of 30 minutes.

5.0 Exposure Monitoring

  1. Initial monitoring will be performed on employees who may be exposed to airborne concentrations exceeding the permissible exposure limits (PEL). Sampling will be conducted at least every six months if exposure above the PEL is still possible.
  2. Exposure determinations are made from breathing zone samples that are representative of the 8-hour and 30-minute short term exposures of each employee. Samples will be collected following procedures approved by OSHA.
  3. Monitoring is not required if objective data indicates that asbestos cannot be released in airborne concentrations above the PEL.
  4. Exposure monitoring will be performed if any change occurs that may result in the employee being exposed above the PEL.
  5. Employees will be notified of the monitoring results within 15 working days after receipt of the report.
  6. If the PEL has been exceeded, employees will be notified of actions being taken to reduce exposures below the PEL.
  7. Affected employees or their designated representatives will be allowed to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to asbestos.
  8. Employees exposed to airborne concentrations of fibers above the PEL will be enrolled in a medical surveillance program. The program will be in conformity with section (l) of the Asbestos Standard for General Industry.

6.0 Regulated Areas

  1. Regulated areas shall be established if airborne concentrations exceed the PEL.
  2. Regulated areas will be clearly marked.
  3. Access to regulated areas will be limited to authorized persons.
  4. Individuals entering regulated areas will use appropriate respiratory protection.
  5. Employees will not eat, drink, smoke, chew tobacco or gum, or apply cosmetics in the regulated area.

7.0 Methods of Compliance

  1. When feasible, engineering and work practice controls shall be instituted to reduce employee exposures to below the PEL. If reduction below the PEL is not possible, exposures will be reduced to the lowest levels possible.
  2. Respiratory protection will be used to supplement engineering and work practice controls if needed. Powered air purifying respirators will be provided to employees upon request. Respiratory protection shall be in compliance with section (g) of the Asbestos Standard for General Industry.
  3. If employees are exposed to asbestos above the PEL or where the possibility of eye irritation exists, appropriate personal protective equipment will be provided. The use of PPE will be in compliance with section (h) of the Asbestos Standard for General Industry.
  4. If exposures exceed the PEL, employees will be provided with change rooms, showers, and lunchrooms that are in compliance with Section (i) of the Asbestos Standard for General Industry.
  5. All tools that produce or release fibers will be provided with local exhaust ventilation.
  6. Local exhaust ventilation and dust collection systems will be designed, constructed, installed, and maintained according to ANSI recommendations.
  7. When practical, asbestos will be handled in a wet state.
  8. Asbestos cement, mortar, grout or similar materials will be handled wet or enclosed or ventilated to prevent the release of asbestos fibers.
  9. Compressed air will not be used to remove asbestos fibers unless a ventilation system effectively captures the dust cloud.
  10. Sanding of asbestos containing flooring materials is prohibited.
  11. Employee rotation is prohibited as a means of compliance with the PEL.
  12. During automotive brake and clutch inspection or repair, engineering controls and work practice controls will be used to reduce employee exposures. A negative pressure enclosure/HEPA vacuum system, low pressure/wet cleaning method, or an equivalent method will be used. All methods will meet the requirements of Appendix F of the OSHA regulations.
  13. If less than five pairs of brakes or five clutches are inspected or repaired per week the methods in paragraph D of Appendix F may be used.
  14. Employees are prohibited from smoking in areas where they are occupationally exposed to asbestos.

8.0 Communication of Hazards to Employees

  • Installed TSI and sprayed on and troweled-on surfacing materials will be treated as ACM in buildings constructed prior to 1980 unless testing demonstrates that the material does not contain asbestos.
  • Asphalt and vinyl flooring material installed prior to 1980 will be assumed to contain asbestos unless testing demonstrates that the material does not contain asbestos.
  • The presence, location, and quantity of ACM and PACM at the work site are determined by the university.
  • The university may demonstrate that PACM does not contain asbestos by having an inspection conducted according to AHERA requirements (40 CFR 763, subpart E). Tests, evaluation, and sample collection will be conducted by an accredited inspector or CIH. Analysis of samples will be performed by laboratories that have demonstrated proficiency by participation in a nationally recognized testing program.
  • Employees, including housekeepers, are informed of the presence and location of ACM and PACM that might be contacted while performing their duties.
  • Records are maintained in Facilities Management and the Safety Office concerning the presence, location, and quantity of ACM and PACM located at the university.
  • The identification of ACM and PACM is made by a CIH or a person with equivalent training.
  • Warning signs shall be displayed at all approaches to regulated areas. The warning signs will state the following:

DANGER
ASBESTOS
CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

  • If respirators and protective clothing are required in the regulated area the warning sign will include this information.
  • Signs shall be posted at the entrance to mechanical rooms that contain ACM or PACM to notify employees of the location of these materials and proper work practices to ensure that the asbestos is not disturbed.
  • Warning labels shall be affixed to all waste containing asbestos fibers.
  • Signs will be posted to notify employees who are likely to be exposed, of installed materials that contain ACM or PACM. These signs are posted where employees can clearly notice them and will comply with the Hazard Communication Standard. Signs are not required if it can be demonstrated that during any reasonably foreseeable use airborne concentrations of fibers will not exceed the PEL.

9.0 Training

1. A training program will be established for all employees exposed to airborne concentrations of asbestos above the PEL. Training will be conducted at the time of initial assignment and at least annually thereafter. Training will include:

  • Health effects associated with exposure to asbestos.
  • The hazards of smoking and working with asbestos.
  • The location and quantity of asbestos.
  • Engineering controls and procedures to protect employees.
  • Respirators and PPE.
  • Medical surveillance program.
  • Content of the asbestos standard.
  • Names, addresses, and phone numbers of public health organizations that provide information concerning smoking cessation.
  • The requirements for posting signs and labels.

2. Housekeepers and maintenance personnel who work in areas that contain ACM or PACM will receive an asbestos awareness training course that contains the following material:

  • Health effects of asbestos.
  • Locations of ACM and PACM.
  • Recognition of ACM and PACM damage and deterioration.
  • The requirements of this standard that relate to housekeeping.
  • The proper response for handling a fiber release.
  • Availability of self-help smoking cessation program material.

3. Training for housekeepers and maintenance personnel will be performed annually by the Safety Office.
4. A copy of the Asbestos Standard will be made available to all affected employees at no cost.

10.0 Housekeeping Procedures

  1. All surfaces will be maintained to prevent, as much as practical, the accumulation of waste, debris, and dust containing ACM.
  2. All spills of ACM shall be cleaned up as soon as possible by properly trained personnel.
  3. Surfaces that are contaminated with asbestos are prohibited from being cleaned up with compressed air.
  4. HEPA vacuums will be used for vacuuming debris that contains asbestos. The equipment is used and emptied in a manner that minimizes the reentry of asbestos into the workplace.
  5. Shoveling, dry sweeping, and dry clean-up of asbestos is used only when vacuuming and/or wet cleaning are not feasible.
  6. Waste contaminated with asbestos shall be disposed of in sealed impermeable bags or other impermeable container.
  7. The sanding of floor materials that contain asbestos is prohibited.
  8. When stripping finishes, low abrasion pads at speeds less than 300 rpm and wet methods will be used.
  9. Burnishing or dry buffing will only be performed on asbestos containing flooring that has a sufficient finish, so that the pad cannot contact the asbestos containing material.

11.0 Recordkeeping

  1. The Safety Office will maintain a record of all measurements taken to monitor employee exposure to asbestos. These records will be maintained for at least thirty years.
  2. When the handling of ACM is exempted from the requirements of this standard a record of the objective data that was relied on in support of the exemption will be maintained in the Safety Office.
  3. A record for each employee that is enrolled in a medical surveillance program will be maintained in the Safety Office. These records will be maintained for the duration of employment plus thirty years.
  4. All training records will be maintained in the Safety Office for one year beyond the last day of employment of that employee.
  5. Exposure and medical records are made available to affected employees and former employees upon request.

12.0 Work Practices for Automotive Brake and Clutch Repair

The following methods are approved for the inspection or repair of brakes and clutches.

Negative Pressure Enclosure/HEPA Vacuum Method

  1. Enclose the brake or clutch operation to prevent the release of fibers into the worker's breathing zone. The enclosure shall allow the worker to clearly see the operation and be provided with impermeable sleeves.
  2. Seal the enclosure tightly and inspect for leaks in the enclosure and sleeves.
  3. Maintain the enclosure under negative pressure with a HEPA vacuum. Compressed air may be used to remove asbestos fibers from inside the enclosure.
  4. Use the HEPA vacuum to loosen the asbestos containing residue from the brake and clutch parts and then to evacuate the material from the enclosure.
  5. Wet the vacuum's filter when full with a fine mist of water. Remove and place in an impermeable container. Label and dispose of properly.
  6. Immediately clean up any spills and properly dispose of the waste.

Low Pressure/Wet Cleaning Method

  1. Place a catch basin under the assembly positioned to avoid splashes and spills.
  2. Fill the reservoir with water containing an organic solvent or wetting agent. Gently flood the assembly to prevent the asbestos dust from becoming airborne. Thoroughly wash all old parts before removal.
  3. Dispose of water in the sanitary sewer system. If a filter is used, wet with a fine mist of the solution then remove and place immediately in an impermeable container. Properly label and dispose as asbestos waste.
  4. Clean up any spills immediately and properly dispose of waste.
  5. Dry brushing is prohibited.

Equivalent Methods

  1. Any written method that will reduce exposures to a level equivalent to Method A may be used.
  2. For purposes of comparison it is assumed that exposures from method A will not exceed 0.016 f/cc as averaged over at least 18 personal samples.

Wet Method

  1. This method can only be used if no more than five pairs of brakes or five clutches are inspected or repaired per week.
  2. Using a spray bottle or equivalent low pressure system, thoroughly wet the assembly with a fine mist of water or amended water. Wipe the parts clean with a cloth.
  3. Place the cloth in an impermeable container. Properly label and dispose of as asbestos waste or launder the cloth in a way that prevents the release of asbestos fibers in excess of 0.1 fibers per cc of air.
  4. Clean up any spills immediately and dispose of as asbestos waste.
  5. Dry brushing is prohibited.

Bloodborne Pathogens - Exposure Control Plan

1.0 Introduction

More than 5.6 million workers are exposed to bloodborne pathogens in the performance of their jobs. Bloodborne pathogens are microorganisms in human blood that cause disease in humans. Although approximately a dozen diseases are known, the main concern is from exposure to the hepatitis B & C viruses (HBV & HCV) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS. To prevent illness, chronic infection, and even death, OSHA has developed a Bloodborne Pathogen Standard to protect workers from exposure to blood and other potentially infectious body fluids. OSHA estimates that the Standard will prevent more than 200 deaths and 9,200 infections annually.

Employees are at risk of contacting infectious diseases each time they are exposed to bloodborne pathogens. It is the policy of Radford University to prevent exposure incidents whenever possible. To protect workers and to comply with OSHA's Bloodborne Pathogen Standard, the university has established this Exposure Control Plan. The purpose of the Plan is to identify occupations, tasks, and procedures where exposure to bloodborne pathogens may occur and to implement controls that will reduce the risk of infection. The Plan also includes provisions for affected employees to receive Hepatitis B vaccinations, training, and if necessary confidential medical evaluations.

This plan will be reviewed and updated at least annually by the Safety Manager. Copies of the plan are available in the Safety Office for review by any employee. Employees may obtain a copy of the plan within 15 days by contacting the Safety Manager at 831-7790.

2.0 Exposure Determination

1. The Safety Manager will evaluate the duties, tasks, and procedures of all employees in each job classification to determine who may have occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens as part of their job duties. This evaluation and exposure determination will be made without regard to personal protective equipment. Exposure determinations will be reviewed and updated at least annually by the Safety Manager.

2.  Job classifications in which all employees have occupational exposure:

  • Police Officers
  • Athletic Trainers
  • Nursing Faculty
  • Lifeguards
  • Housekeepers
  • Plumbers
  • Physicians
  • Nurse Practitioners
  • Laboratory Technicians
  • Speech Language Pathologists
  • Audiologists

3. Job classifications in which some employees have occupational exposure and the procedures that cause them to have occupational exposure:

  • Recreation Supervisors- first aid (collateral duty)
  • Pool Managers- first aid (collateral duty)
  • Recreation, Parks, and Tourism Therapists- first aid (collateral duty)
  • Dietitians- Phlebotomy (primary duty), first aid (collateral duty)

3.0 Universal Precautions

  1. All workers will observe universal precautions when performing any task which may result in occupational exposure to blood or other potentially infectious body fluid. Universal precautions treat all human blood and certain body fluids as if they were infected with bloodborne pathogens.
  2. Universal precautions apply to blood, semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluids, synovial fluids, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, amniotic fluid, saliva in dental procedures, any body fluid that is visibly contaminated with blood, and all body fluids where it is difficult to differentiate between body fluids. Universal precautions also apply to exposure to unfixed tissues or organs other than intact skin from living or dead humans.

4.0 Engineering Controls

1. Engineering controls are devices that isolate or remove the bloodborne pathogens hazard from the worker. Engineering controls shall be used in preference to other control methods to eliminate or minimize exposure to blood or other potentially body fluids. Departments will evaluate the effectiveness of existing controls and review the feasibility of instituting more advanced engineering controls that eliminate or reduce exposure to bloodborne pathogens. 

2.  The following engineering controls will be in place in all areas of occupational exposure:

  • Readily accessible handwashing facilities.
  • Antiseptic towelettes or antiseptic hand cleanser and towels in areas where it is not feasible to have handwashing facilities.
  • Sharps disposal containers.
  • Appropriate containers for storage, transport, or shipment of blood or other potentially infectious materials, regulated waste, and contaminated laundry.

3.  Engineering controls will be inspected periodically and repaired or replaced as needed by a designated person appointed by supervision in affected departments.

 4.  Commercially available safer medical devices designed to eliminate or reduce occupational exposure will be evaluated annually and implemented if appropriate. Examples include self-sheathing needles, sharps with engineered sharps injury protections and needleless systems. Documentation of this evaluation will be kept by affected departments.

 5.  In the evaluation and selection of safer medical devices input will be solicited from non-managerial employees who are responsible for direct patient care and potentially exposed to contaminated sharps. Affected departments will maintain documentation of this evaluation. 

5.0 Work Practices

  1. Work practice controls reduce the likelihood of exposure by altering the manner in which a task is performed. Handwashing is the most effective means of preventing the spread of infections. Workers shall wash their hands and other skin surfaces with soap and water as soon as possible after contact with blood or other potentially infectious body fluids. Hands will be washed immediately after removing gloves and other personal protective equipment.
  2. If handwashing facilities are not readily available an antiseptic hand cleaner and clean towels or antiseptic towelettes will be used. If these alternatives are used, hands shall be washed as soon as feasible with soap and running water.
  3. Workers shall flush mucous membranes with copious amounts of water as soon as possible following contact with blood or other potentially infectious body fluid.
  4. All procedures will be performed in a manner that minimizes splashing or spraying.
  5. Eating, drinking, smoking, applying cosmetics, or handling contact lenses are prohibited in areas of potential exposure to bloodborne pathogens.
  6. Food or drinks will not be stored in areas where blood or other potentially infectious materials are present.
  7. Mouth pipetting/suctioning of blood or other potentially infectious materials is strictly prohibited.
  8. Specimens of blood or other potentially infectious materials will be placed in a container that prevents leakage during collection, handling, processing, storage, transport, or shipping. The container shall be labeled or color-coded and closed prior to being stored or shipped.
  9. If outside contamination occurs or the container is punctured it will be placed in a labeled or color coded secondary container which prevents leakage.

6.0 Personal Protective Equipment

  1. When engineering controls and work practices are insufficient to control occupational exposure, the university will supply at no cost to employees, appropriate personal protective equipment. This equipment includes gloves, gowns, laboratory coats, face shields or masks, eye protection, mouthpieces, or pocket masks. Employees will wear personal protective equipment when doing procedures in which exposure to the skin, eyes, mouth, or other mucous membranes is anticipated.
  2. The Safety Manager will train employees in the proper use of the equipment. Personal protective equipment will be purchased in appropriate sizes, maintained, and distributed by affected departments.
  3. Progressive disciplinary actions up to and including discharge will be used by supervision to ensure that employees use assigned personal protective equipment.
  4. Personal protective equipment will be readily accessible at the worksite or individually issued to employees.
  5. The university will clean, launder, dispose, repair, or replace personal protective equipment at no cost to the employee. Home laundering is not permitted.
  6. All personal protective equipment will be removed prior to leaving the work site and placed in an appropriately designated area or container. Areas where employees store contaminated items will be determined by affected departments.
  7. Workers will wear gloves when it can be reasonably anticipated that hand contact with blood, other potentially infectious body fluids, mucous membranes, or non-intact skin is possible.
  8. Disposable (single use) gloves such as surgical or examination gloves shall be replaced as soon as practical when contaminated, or as soon as feasible when torn or punctured. Single use gloves will not be washed or decontaminated for re-use.
  9. Employees will wear disposable gloves made of vinyl, latex, or nitrile when drawing blood. Gloves will be changed between patient contact and disposed in appropriate containers as contaminated waste.
  10. Rubber household utility gloves will be used for housekeeping chores that involve handling items or surfaces contaminated with blood or body fluids to which universal precautions apply. Utility gloves may be washed and disinfected for reuse but must be discarded if punctured or torn.
  11. Surgical masks, protective eyewear with solid side shields, and/or face shields will be worn whenever splashes, spray, or splatter of blood or other potentially infectious materials are generated. These devices are not required for routine care.
  12. Gowns, aprons, and other protective body clothing will be worn in occupational situations in which exposure is reasonably anticipated. Gowns should be made of, or lined with fluid resistant material. If a garment is penetrated by blood or other potentially infective fluid, the garment shall be removed immediately or as soon as feasible.
  13. Suitable ventilation devices such as mouthpieces and resuscitation bags that minimize contact with saliva will be provided in strategic locations or to key personnel where the need for resuscitation is likely.
  14. Surgical caps or hoods and/or shoe covers or boots shall be worn in instances when gross contamination can reasonably be anticipated.
  15. Following are examples of procedures requiring personal protective equipment and the recommend protection:
  • Minimal bleeding- disposable gloves
  • Spurting blood- disposable gloves, gown, mask, protective eyewear
  • Blood spills- disposable utility gloves, protective eyewear
  • Blood drawing- disposable gloves
  • Emergency childbirth- disposable gloves, gown, mask, eye protection
  • Oral/nasal suctioning-disposable gloves
  • Starting an IV- disposable gloves
  • Handling and cleaning contaminated equipment- disposable gloves
  • Handling contaminated laundry- disposable gloves
  • Measuring blood pressure- none
  • Giving an injection- none
  • CPR- one-way valve masks, disposable gloves
  • Opening blood or specimen containers- disposable gloves

7.0 Housekeeping

1. The worksite will be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition. An appropriate written schedule for cleaning and decontaminating will be implemented by affected departments for routine and non-routine tasks. Procedures will give the methods, disinfectant used, and frequency of decontamination of various areas within the department.

2. Housekeeping workers will wear appropriate personal protective equipment including general purpose utility gloves during all cleaning of blood or other potentially infectious materials.

3. All equipment and work surfaces shall be properly cleaned and disinfected after completing procedures involving exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials. Employees will clean equipment and surfaces:

  • When surfaces become obviously contaminated.
  • After any spill of blood or other potentially infectious material.
  • At the end of the work shift if the surface may have become contaminated since the last cleaning.
  • When the employee leaves the work area for a period of time.

4. An approved hospital disinfectant that is tuberculocidal or a freshly prepared solution of household bleach diluted 1:10 with water will be used for cleaning surfaces and equipment.

5. Protective coverings used to cover equipment and surfaces will be replaced as soon as feasible when they become grossly contaminated or at the end of the workshift when they become contaminated.

6. All reusable containers such as bins, pails, and trash cans shall be inspected weekly and decontaminated if necessary. Reusable containers will be decontaminated as soon as possible following visible contamination.

7. Broken glassware will be picked up by mechanical means such as a brush and dustpan, or tongs. Broken glassware will not be picked up by hand, even when wearing gloves.

8. Blood spills will be cleaned up by authorized individuals. The following procedures will be used to clean-up spills of blood or other potentially infectious fluids:

  • Secure the area.
  • Wear appropriate PPE such as rubber gloves, booties, and goggles.
  • Place disposable or cloth towels over the spill to soak up gross amounts of fluids.
  • Place soaked towels into a red plastic bag.
  • Wash the area with soap and water.
  • Use towels to complete the clean-up.
  • Disinfect the area with an appropriate germicide such as a freshly prepared 1:10 solution of bleach (one cup of bleach to nine cups of water) or a hospital disinfectant labeled as tuberculocidal. Do not mix bleach with other cleaning or disinfecting agents.
  • Leave disinfectant on the spill for 10 minutes.
  • Place all contaminated materials including gloves into the red plastic bag, seal, and properly label.
  • Dispose of the bag as infectious waste.
  • Cloth towels may be washed. Mops should be disinfected.
  • Dispose of wash water in the sanitary sewer system. Blood on sidewalks or streets may be washed into a sewer or storm drain.  Do not wash bleach into a storm drain.
  • Wash hands after removing gloves.

9. Equipment that may be contaminated will be examined prior to servicing or shipping and decontaminated if possible. The equipment will be labeled indicating which portions are still contaminated.

8.0 Laundry Practices

  1. Contaminated clothing will be handled as little as possible with a minimum of agitation. Workers who handle potentially infectious clothing will wear appropriate personal protective equipment such as gloves. Gowns and eye protection will be worn if gross contamination is present.
  2. Contaminated clothing will be bagged at the location where it was used and transported in leakproof containers labeled with the biohazard symbol or in red plastic bags. Laundry will not be sorted or rinsed at the location of use.
  3. Contaminated laundry will be laundered on-site by properly trained personnel or picked up by a commercial laundry service. Washing at a public Laundromat is allowed but not encouraged. Dry cleaning is acceptable. Contaminated laundry shall not be taken home.

9.0 Labels

  1. All containers of contaminated waste, laundry, refrigerators and freezers, and other containers used to store blood and other potentially infectious materials will be properly labeled or color coded. Employees will be informed of labeling requirements during training sessions.
  2. Individual small containers are exempt from the labeling requirement provided they are stored in larger labeled containers.
  3. Labels will include the universal biohazard symbol and wording. Labels will be fluorescent orange or orange-red with contrasting lettering.
  4. Red plastic bags or containers may be used instead of labels if all employees understand the meaning of the color code.

10.0 Infectious Waste

1. Regulated infectious waste is defined as:

  • Liquid or semi-liquid blood or other potentially infectious materials.
  • Contaminated items which could release blood if compressed (discarded feminine hygiene products are exempted).
  • Items caked with dried blood that could be released during handling.
  • Contaminated sharps.
  • Pathological and microbiological waste containing blood or other potentially infectious materials.

2. Disposal of infectious waste shall be in accordance with applicable State regulations for infectious waste management. Solid infectious waste will be steam autoclaved or incinerated prior to disposal. No infectious waste will be disposed of in a landfill. Liquid or semi-liquid infectious waste may be disposed of in the sanitary sewer system.

3. The generator of infectious waste is responsible for the proper packaging, labeling, and management of the waste. Infectious waste shall be placed in closable, leakproof containers or bags that are color-coded, labeled, or tagged.

4. Infectious waste shall be packaged as follows:

  • Infectious waste will be contained in two leakproof, plastic bags, each sealed separately, or one leakproof plastic bag inside a double-walled corrugated fiberboard box or equivalent rigid container.
  • Sharps will be collected at the point of generation in puncture resistant containers, and placed inside a plastic bag prior to storage or transport.
  • All bags will be red in color except bags that are to be steam sterilized. These bags will be orange in color and marked with autoclave tape.
  • Prior to transport on a highway all infectious waste will be placed in a double-walled corrugated fiberboard box or equivalent container.
  • Infectious waste will not be compacted or subjected to violent mechanical stress.
  • Generators will maintain shipping papers from commercial carriers if the waste is sent off-site. The date, type of treatment, type and amount of waste, and the operator's name will be maintained if the waste is treated in-house.

5. All infectious waste will be labeled immediately after packaging. The label will be securely attached to the outer packaging and be clearly legible. The label shall be at three inches by five inches in size and contain the words "INFECTIOUS WASTE" and the biohazard symbol. The label will also contain the name, address, and phone number of the generator and transporter.

6. Contaminated waste not meeting the definition of regulated infectious waste will be properly packaged to prevent exposure to students, workers, and the public. Non-regulated waste will be placed in regular plastic bags (not red or orange). The bag or outside container will be labeled with the biohazard symbol. Bags will be sealed and labels removed prior to disposal in the regular trash.

7. Drop sites on campus for infectious waste are located in the following areas:

  • Student Health Services in Moffett Hall
  • Dedmon Center Pool
  • Waldron Hall
  • Athletic Department in the Dedmon Center

11.0 Sharps

1. Workers will use appropriate precautions to prevent injuries from needles, scalpels, and other sharp instruments. Contaminated needles shall not be recapped, removed from disposable syringes by hand, or bent as a general practice. Cutting or breaking contaminated needles is prohibited.

2. If no alternative is feasible or such action is required by the procedure, the contaminated needle may be recapped or removed if a mechanical device or a one-handed technique is used. Justifications for these procedures must be in writing and approved by supervision and the Safety Manager.

3. Disposable syringes, needles, scalpel blades, contaminated broken glass, and other sharp items will be placed in puncture resistant containers for disposal immediately or as soon as possible after use. Containers will not be cleaned or reused. Sharps containers shall be:

  • Easily accessible to workers & located as close as feasible to the immediate area where sharps are used.
  • Constructed of a durable, puncture resistant, high impact plastic such as high-density polyethylene.
  • Labeled with the biohazard label or color coded.
  • Leakproof on the sides and bottom.
  • Closable.
  • Maintained upright while in use.
  • Replaced when 3/4 full.

4. When moving containers of contaminated sharps the containers will be closed prior to removal and placed in a secondary container if leakage is possible. The secondary container shall be closable, leakproof, and properly labeled or color coded red.

5. Containers for reusable sharps will meet the same requirements as containers for disposable sharps, except that they are not required to be closable. Contaminated reusable sharps will not be stored in a container in such a manner that requires an employee to reach by hand into the container. Containers will include a wire basket liner or the employee will use tongs to withdraw the contents.

12.0 Training

1. Employees who are occupationally exposed to blood or other potentially infectious material will participate in a training and education program. Training will be performed by the Safety Manager or other "knowledgeable" person. The training program shall include the following material:

  • Epidemiology and symptoms of exposure to HBV, HCV and HIV.
  • Modes of transmission of HBV, HCV and HIV.
  • The university's exposure control plan.
  • Control methods that may prevent or reduce exposure.
  • Personal protective equipment.
  • Information on the HBV vaccine.
  • Procedures to follow if an exposure incident occurs.
  • Signs, labels, color coding system used to denote biohazards.
  • Explanation of the Standard and how to obtain a copy.
  • Actions to take in an emergency involving blood.
  • Post-exposure evaluation.

2. Training will be provided during normal work hours at the time of initial assignment and at least annually thereafter. Additional training will be performed if modifications of procedures affect the employee's possible exposure. Participants will have an opportunity to ask questions during the training session.

13.0 Hepatitus B Vaccination

  1. Vaccination for hepatitis B will be offered at no cost to employees who have occupational exposure to blood or other potentially infectious fluids. The Safety Manager, in cooperation with supervision, will determine the need for the vaccination. Vaccines will be administered at the Student Health Center in Moffett Hall.
  2. Vaccines will not be offered to individuals who perform first aid as a collateral duty to their routine work assignments until after they give aid involving blood or other potentially infectious materials. Vaccines will be offered within 24 hours after exposure. All first aid incidents must be reported to supervision before the end of the work shift in which the incident occurred. The report will include the name of the first aid provider, description of the incident, date, time and a determination of whether an exposure incident occurred.
  3. Vaccinations will not be offered to employees who have previously received the complete vaccination series, employees who have immunity as demonstrated through antibody testing, or to employees in which the vaccine is medically contraindicated.
  4. Vaccinations will be offered after employees have received training in bloodborne pathogens and within 10 working days of initial assignment.
  5. Employees may decline the vaccination but can change their minds at a later date and receive the vaccination. Employees who decline will sign the OSHA Declination Form.
  6. The university is not obligated to pay for vaccines that are due after an employee leaves the university. 
  7. The university will pay for postvaccination testing for antibody to hepatitis B for health care workers who are at risk for injuries with sharp instruments or needlesticks. Testing will be done 1-2 months after the vaccine series is completed.   Periodic testing to determine antibody concentrations is not indicated. 
  8. The Safety Manager will provide a copy of OSHAs Bloodborne Pathogens Standard to the healthcare professional responsible for the employee's vaccination.

14.0 Post-Exposure Evaluation

  1. Exposure incidents (e.g., needlestick, cut, splash to eye, mouth, or nasal mucosa, splash to non-intact skin) must be reported to supervision immediately. An exposure incident for workers who may be exposed to blood as a collateral duty is defined as any exposure to blood. As soon as possible supervisors will make an appointment with Dr. Daniel Kelly at Carilion Family Medicine (731-3200) for a post-exposure evaluation. Supervisors will complete the First Report of Injury, and Exposure Incident Report (PDF) and send the reports to the Human Resources Department and the Safety Office. A confidential medical evaluation will be performed by Dr. Kelly as soon as possible following a report of an exposure incident. The duties of the employee, route of exposure, circumstances of the incident, and vaccination status will be provided to Dr. Kelly.
  2. Laboratory tests will be conducted by an accredited laboratory at no cost to employees. Unless the exposure incident involved a known HIV, HBV or HCV individual, Workers Compensation will not cover the costs of the medical evaluation. The costs of all tests and the physician's charge will be the responsibility of the department.
  3. If feasible, consent will be obtained from the source patient and the blood tested to determine HIV, HBV and HCV status. Results of the test will be made available to the exposed employee, source individual, and physician in charge of the exposure incident. No one else has a right to know the results of the source individual or exposed employee testing. If consent is not given or if the source is unknown the physician will document this in writing. If a healthcare provider is involved in an exposure incident, the source individual's consent is not needed for HIV testing if blood is available. A court order may be obtained to test the source patient if a police officer is involved.
  4. After consent has been obtained from the exposed employee a sample of blood will be drawn as soon as possible after the incident to determine HIV, HBV and HCV status. If the employee does not give consent at that time for HIV testing, the sample will be preserved for 90 days. Testing will be done as soon as feasible if the employee decides to have the blood tested within the 90-day period.
  5. Repeat HIV testing will be offered to the exposed employee six weeks after the incident and on a periodic basis as determined by the physician to ensure that the employee is not HIV positive. It is the responsibility of the department to pay for the tests even if the employee leaves the university before all tests are completed.
  6. Follow-up of the exposed worker shall include counseling, medical evaluation, and the use of safe and effective post-exposure measures according to recommendations for standard medical practice.
  7. An employee who has been exposed to blood from a known HIV patient should report within two hours to Dr. Kelly or to the Emergency Room at the Carilion New River Valley Medical Center.
  8. A copy of OSHAs Bloodborne Pathogen Standard will be given to the healthcare professional responsible for evaluating an employee after an exposure incident.
  9. A copy of the physician's written opinion will be given to the employee within 15 days of the completion of the evaluation. The written opinion will document that the employee was informed of the results of the evaluation and told about any medical conditions resulting from the exposure which requires further evaluation or treatment. The report will also identify if the hepatitis B vaccination was recommended and whether or not the employee received the vaccination. All other findings will remain confidential and not be included in the report. Specifically, HIV, HBV and HCV status will not be included in the report. Employer access to this report is allowed.
  10. Employee medical records will be kept confidential. Contents will not be disclosed to any person within or outside the workplace without the employee's written consent, except as required by law.

15.0 Recordkeeping

1. A medical record will be established and maintained for each employee with occupational exposure. Records will be maintained in the Student Health Center, RU Clinic, and the Safety Office. The following information will be included in the file:

  • Name and social security number of the employee.
  • Copy of the employee's hepatitis B vaccination status including the dates of all hepatitis B vaccinations and declination forms.
  • Copy of all examinations, medical testing, and follow-up procedures.
  • Employer's copy of the physician's written opinion concerning an exposure incident.

2. The university will ensure that all medical records are kept confidential and not disclosed without the employee's written consent except as required by law.

3. Medical records will be maintained for the duration of employment plus 30 years.

4. Training records will be maintained by the Safety Manager for at least three years. Training records will contain the names and job titles of individuals attending the class, date, contents of the training, and the names and qualifications of the persons conducting the training. Training records will be provided to employees upon request.

5.  A sharps injury log will be maintained for the recording of injuries from contaminated sharps. Confidentiality of the injured employee will be maintained. The sharps injury log will contain at least the following information:

  • The type and brand of device involved in the incident.
  • The department or work area where the exposure incident occurred.
  • An explanation of how the incident occurred.

Hearing Conservation Program

1.0 Introduction

Workers can permanently damage their hearing if exposed to an average of greater than 90 dB during an 8-hour work day. There is no cure for hearing loss due to noise exposure. Once hearing is damaged, it does not return to normal. Workers do not adjust to noise; hearing is simply lost, nor does noise need to be painful to induce hearing loss. Hearing loss can occur quickly or slowly over time. Even noise levels that are below legal limits can be stressful resulting in fatigue, and decreased productivity in workers. Symptoms associated with hearing loss include ringing in the ears, difficulty in hearing and understanding normal speech, inability to hear soft or high-pitched sounds, and temporary hearing loss that returns to normal away from the job.

Hearing damage can be prevented by proper engineering and administrative controls, or by using hearing protective devices. Examples of engineering controls include placing noisy machinery in a separate area or isolating the equipment in sound proof cages. Administrative controls include arranging work schedules to reduce the time workers spend in a high noise area. If these controls are not practical, then employees must use hearing protective devices. There are several different types of hearing devices and employees should know the advantages and limitations of each type.

2.0 Procedures

1. Limits. Personal protective equipment shall be provided and used by employees to reduce sound levels when the following levels are exceeded:

  • 90 dB for 8 hrs
  • 95 dB for 4 hrs
  • 100 dB for 2 hrs
  • 105 dB for 1 hr
  • 110 dB for one-half hr
  • 115 dB for one-quarter hr or less

2. Hearing Conservation Program. Radford University will develop a hearing conservation program including monitoring and audiometric testing whenever employee noise exposure exceeds an 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) of 85 dB. Employees exposed to noise over 85 dB TWA shall be enrolled in a hearing conservation program. Audiograms will be repeated annually.

3. Hazard control. Noise shall be controlled to less than 85 dB by engineering or administrative controls whenever technically or economically feasible.

4. Training. Employees exposed to noise levels in excess of 85 dB TWA will receive annual training conducted by the Safety Office in the harmful effects of noise and noise reduction techniques.

5. Hearing protection devices. Hearing protective devices are mandatory for employees exposed to noise levels above 90 dB TWA. Hearing protection will be provide and encouraged for employees exposed to noise levels between 85 and 90 dB TWA. Hearing protection devices must be approved by the Safety Office. Several different types of hearing devices will be made available to employees. The Safety Office will instruct employees in the proper care and use of the devices.

6. Ear Plugs. Ear plugs are inserted into the outer portion of the ear canal and effectively seal the inner ear. They are made of rubber or plastic and may come with or without strings. Strings are useful to prevent loss and help keep the plugs clean. Some come in standard sizes that fit most ears and others are moldable to conform to the ear canal. Ear plugs are small, comfortable, and inexpensive. Because of their comfort, ear plugs are generally recommended in areas that require all day protection. However they can work loose, may not always fit properly, and protection may vary among individuals. Workers should always use clean hands to insert the plugs because they can introduce dirt into the ear canal possibly leading to infections. Disposable ear plugs should be thrown away after use. Reusable ear plugs should be cleaned each day with soap and water.

6. Canal Caps. Canal caps seal the entrance to the ear canal with soft pads connected to a headband. Workers who find ear plugs annoying may prefer canal caps. They are comfortable, more sanitary than ear plugs, and inexpensive but may not effectively seal the ear canal.

7. Ear Muffs. Ear muffs consist of ear cushions, head band, and ear cups. They fit over the outer ear and provide the greatest protection against high frequency sounds. Ear muffs seldom come loose, can be adjusted for comfort and are more sanitary than other hearing protective devices. Ear muffs are generally worn by workers who frequently move in and out of high noise areas. However, they may not be as comfortable as ear plugs and canal caps, especially in hot weather. They are more expensive and may be difficult to wear with other protective equipment. For noise levels above 105 dB ear muffs should be worn with ear plugs.

8. Surveys. The Safety Office will conduct periodic surveys of the workplace to identify noise levels and employee exposure. Surveys will be conducted within 30 days of start-up of new equipment or process modifications that may exceed 85 dB. Records of surveys will be maintained by the Safety Office. Instruments used to monitor noise exposure will be calibrated before use.

9. Signs. All areas exceeding 90 dB will be posted as high noise areas and hearing protection required.

10. Impact noise. Exposure to impact noise shall not exceed 140 dB.

Lead in Construction

1.0 Introduction

In the construction industry, most over-exposures to lead are found in the trades, such as plumbing, welding, electrical work, carpentry, and painting. Significant lead exposures can also arise from removing paint from surfaces previously coated with lead-based paint, such as in renovation and demolition. Once in the blood, lead is distributed primarily in the blood, soft tissue (kidney, bone marrow, liver, and brain) and bones and teeth and can build to toxic levels.

2.0 Scope

This section applies to all construction work where an employee may be occupationally exposed to lead. Construction work is defined as work for construction, alteration and/or repair, including painting and decorating. It includes but is not limited to the following:

  • Demolition or salvage of structures where lead is present.
  • Removal or encapsulation of materials containing lead.
  • New construction, alteration, repair, or renovation of structures that contain lead.
  • Installation of products containing lead.
  • Lead contamination/emergency cleanup.
  • Transportation, disposal, storage, or containment of lead on the site or location at which construction activities are performed.
  • Maintenance operations associated with the construction activities described in this program.

3.0 Definitions

Action level- Employee exposure, without regard to the use of respirators, to an airborne concentration of lead of 30 micrograms per cubic meter of air calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA).

Competent person- A person who is capable of identifying lead hazards and has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.

Lead- Metallic lead, all inorganic lead compounds, and organic lead soaps. Excluded from this definition are all other organic lead compounds.

4.0 Permissable Exposure Limit

  1. No employee will be exposed to lead at concentrations greater than fifty micrograms per cubic meter of air (50 ug/cubic meter ) averaged over an 8-hour period.
  2. If an employee is exposed to lead for more than 8 hours in any work day the allowable exposure, as a time weighted average (TWA) for that day, shall be reduced according to the following formula: Allowable employee exposure (in ug/cubic meter) = 400 divided by hours worked in the day.
  3. When respirators are worn, employee exposure will be based on the protection factor of the respirator. These levels will be averaged with exposure levels during periods when respirators are not worn to determine the employee's daily TWA exposure.

5.0 Exposure Assessment

General

  1. The Safety Office will conduct initial monitoring to determine if an employee is exposed to lead above the action level.
  2. Employee exposure is the exposure that would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.
  3. Where monitoring is required, the Safety Office will collect personal samples representative of a full shift. At least one sample for each job classification in each work area for each shift or the shift with the highest exposure level will be included.
  4. Full shift personal samples shall be representative of the monitored employee's regular, daily exposure to lead.

Protection of employees during assessment of exposure

1. Until the Safety Office performs an exposure assessment and documents that an employee performing any of the tasks listed below is not exposed above the PEL (50 ug/cubic meter), the employee will be assumed to be exposed above the PEL, but less than ten times the PEL. The tasks covered by this requirement are:

  • Where lead containing coatings or paint are present. Manual demolition of structures (e.g., dry wall), manual scraping, manual sanding, heat gun applications, and power tool cleaning with dust collection systems.
  • Spray painting with lead paint.

2. For the tasks listed below, until an exposure assessment is performed that demonstrates that employees are not exposed in excess of 500 ug/cubic meter, employees will be assumed to be exposed to lead in excess of 500 ug/cubic meter. If employees are exposed to levels of lead below 500 ug/cubic meter, exposed employees will be provided with the appropriate respirator. The tasks covered by this requirement are:

  • Using lead containing mortar; lead burning.
  • Where lead containing coatings or paint are present: rivet busting; power tool cleaning without dust collection systems; cleanup activities where dry expendable abrasives are used; and abrasive blasting enclosure movement and removal.

3. For the tasks listed below, until an exposure assessment is performed that demonstrates that employees are not exposed in excess of 2,500 ug/cubic meters (50 x PEL), employees will be assumed to be exposed in excess of 2,500 ug/cubic meters. If employees are exposed to levels of lead below 2,500 ug/cubic meters, employees will be provided with appropriate respirators. Interim protection as described in this paragraph is required where lead containing coatings or paint are present on structures when performing:

  • Abrasive blasting
  • Welding
  • Cutting
  • Torch burning

4. With regard to tasks not listed above, if there is any reason to believe that workers may be exposed to lead in excess of the PEL, workers will be treated as if they were exposed above the PEL until an exposure assessment is performed that demonstrates exposures below the PEL.

5.  For the tasks not listed above, if objective data is available demonstrating that a particular product containing lead or a specific process, operation or activity involving lead cannot result in exposure to lead above the action level this data may be used instead of implementing initial monitoring. An accurate record shall be maintained documenting the nature and relevancy of objective data, where used in assessing employee exposure instead of exposure monitoring.

6.  Until an employee exposure assessment is performed that determines actual exposure, employees performing the tasks described above will be provided with interim protection as follows:

  • Appropriate respiratory protection.
  • Appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment.
  • Change areas.
  • Hand washing facilities.
  • Biological monitoring to consist of blood sampling and analysis for lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels.
  • Hazard Communication and respiratory training.

Basis of initial determination

1. Initial determinations of employee exposure will be based on exposure monitoring results and any of the following, relevant considerations:

  • Any information, observations, or calculations which would indicate employee exposure to lead.
  • Any previous measurements of airborne lead.
  • Any employee complaints of symptoms which may be attributable to exposure to lead.

2. Monitoring for the initial determination may be limited to a representative sample of the exposed employees who are exposed to the greatest airborne concentrations of lead in the workplace.

3. If previous monitoring for lead exposures was performed within the past 12 months using work operations that closely resemble the type of material, control methods, work practices, and environmental conditions used in the current operations, the earlier monitoring results may be used to satisfy the requirements of this section if the sampling and analytical methods meet the required accuracy and confidence levels.

Positive initial determination and initial monitoring

1. If an initial determination shows the possibility of any employee exposure at or above the action level, monitoring which is representative of the exposure for each employee in the workplace who is exposed to lead will be conducted.

Negative initial determination

1. Where an initial determination is made that no employee is exposed to airborne concentrations of lead at or above the action level a written record will be made. The record shall include the date of determination, location within the worksite, and the name and social security number of each employee monitored.

Frequency

1. If the initial determination reveals employee exposure below the action level, further exposure determination will not be repeated unless there is a change in the task.

2. If the initial determination or subsequent determination reveals employee exposure above the action level but below the PEL, monitoring will be performed at least every 6 months. Monitoring will be continued at the required frequency until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least 7 days apart, are below the action level at which time monitoring may be discontinued unless there has been a change in the task.

3. If the initial determination reveals that employee exposure is above the PEL, monitoring will be performed quarterly. Monitoring will continue at the required frequency until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least 7 days apart, are below the PEL but above the action level.

Additional exposure assessments

1. Additional monitoring will be conducted whenever there has been a change of equipment, process, control, personnel or a new task has been initiated that may result in additional employees being exposed to lead above the action level or may result in employees already exposed above the action level being exposed above the PEL.

Employee notification

1. Within 5 working days after completion of the exposure assessment each employee will be notified in writing of the results which represent that employee's exposure.

2. Whenever the results indicate that the representative employee exposure is above the PEL the written notice will include a statement that the employees exposure was above that level and a description of the corrective action that will be taken.

Accuracy of measurement

1. A method of monitoring and analysis will be used that has an accuracy (to a confidence level of 95 percent) of not less than plus or minus 25 percent for airborne concentrations of lead equal to or greater than 30 ug/cubic meter.

6.0 Methods of Compliance

Engineering and work practice controls

1. Engineering and work practice controls will be implemented to reduce and maintain employee exposure to lead below the permissible exposure limit to the extent that such controls are feasible. When engineering and work practices controls are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to below the permissible exposure limit, they will be used to reduce employee exposure to the lowest feasible level and will be supplemented with respiratory protection.

Compliance program

1. Prior to commencement of the job a written compliance program will be established and implemented to ensure that the PEL is not exceeded.

2. Written plans for these compliance programs shall include at least the following:

  • A description of each activity in which lead is emitted; e.g., equipment used, material involved, controls in place, crew size, employee job responsibilities, operating procedures and maintenance practices.
  • A description of the specific means that will be used to achieve compliance and, where engineering controls are required engineering plans and studies used to determine methods selected for controlling exposure to lead.
  • A report of the technology considered in meeting the PEL
  • Air monitoring data which documents the source of lead emissions.
  • A detailed schedule for implementation of the program, including documentation such as copies of purchase orders for equipment, construction contracts, etc.
  • A work practice program which includes protective clothing & equipment, housekeeping, and hygiene facilities and practices and incorporates other relevant good work practices.
  • A job rotation schedule if used as a means of reducing employees TWA exposure to lead.
  • A description of arrangements made among contractors on multi-contractor sites with respect to informing affected employees of potential exposure to lead
  • Other relevant information.

3. The compliance program will provide for frequent and regular inspections of job sites, materials, and equipment by a competent person.

4. Written programs shall be submitted upon request to any affected employee, authorized employee representatives, or OSHA and shall be available at the worksite.

5. Written programs shall be revised and updated at least every 6 months to reflect the current status of the program.

Mechanical ventilation

1. When ventilation is used to control lead exposure, the performance of the system shall be evaluated in controlling exposure as necessary to maintain its effectiveness.

Administrative controls

1. If administrative controls are used as a means of reducing employees exposure to lead, a job rotation schedule will be established and implemented which includes:

  • Name or identification number of each affected employee.
  • Duration and exposure levels at each job or work station where each affected employee is located.
  • Any other information which may be useful in assessing the reliability of administrative controls to reduce exposure to lead.

2.  To the extent relevant, employees will follow good work practices as described in Appendix B of the OSHA regulations.

7.0 Respiratory Protection

General

1. Respirators will be used when:

  • An employee's exposure to lead exceeds the PEL.
  • Operations for which engineering and work-practice controls are not sufficient to reduce employee exposures to or below the PEL.
  • An employee requests a respirator.
  • Respirators are required to provide interim protection of employees.

Respirator program

1. The Respiratory Protection Program will be developed in accordance with OSHA regulations 1910.134.

2. If an employee has breathing difficulty during fit testing or respirator use, a medical examination will be provided to determine if the employee can use a respirator while performing the task.

Respirator selection

1. Only NIOSH approved respirators will be used. Respirators will be appropriate for the task.

2. A powered air-purifying respirator will be provided if an employee chooses to use such a respirator and it will provide adequate protection.

8.0 Protective Work Clothing and Equipment

Provision and use

1. If an employee is exposed to lead above the PEL or to lead compounds which may cause skin or eye irritation, and as interim protection, the following protective work clothing and equipment will be provided.

  • Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing.
  • Gloves, hats, and shoes or disposable shoe covers.
  • Face shields, vented goggles, or other appropriate eye protective equipment.

Cleaning and replacement

1. Protective clothing will be provided in a clean and dry condition at least weekly, and daily to employees whose exposure levels are over 200 ug/cubic of lead as an 8-hour TWA.

2. Cleaning, laundering, and disposal of protective clothing and equipment will be handled by the university.

3. Protective clothing and equipment will be repaired or replaced as needed to maintain their effectiveness.

4. Protective clothing will be removed at the completion of a work shift only in change areas provided for that purpose.

5. Contaminated protective clothing which is cleaned, laundered, or disposed of, will be placed in a closed container in the change area which prevents dispersion of lead outside the container.

6. Any person who cleans or launders protective clothing or equipment will be informed of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to lead.

7. Containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment will be labeled as follows:

Caution: Clothing contaminated with lead. Do not remove dust by blowing or shaking. Dispose of lead contaminated wash water in accordance with applicable local, state, or federal regulations.

8. The removal of lead from protective clothing or equipment will be prohibited by blowing, shaking, or any other means which disperses lead into the air.

9.0 Housekeeping

  1. All surfaces shall be maintained as free as practicable of accumulations of lead.
  2. Clean-up of floors and other surfaces where lead accumulates shall wherever possible, be cleaned by vacuuming or other methods that minimize the likelihood of lead becoming airborne.
  3. Shoveling, dry or wet sweeping, and brushing may be used only where vacuuming or other equally effective methods have been tried and found not to be effective.
  4. Where vacuuming methods are selected, the vacuums shall be equipped with HEPA filters and used and emptied in a manner which minimizes the reentry of lead into the workplace.
  5. Compressed air shall not be used to remove lead from any surface unless the compressed air is used in conjunction with a ventilation system designed to capture the airborne dust.

10.0 Hygiene Facilities and Practices

  1. In areas where employees are exposed to lead above the PEL, food or beverage will not be present or consumed, tobacco products will not be present or used, and cosmetics will not be applied.

Change areas

  1. Clean change areas will be provided for employees whose airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL and as interim protection for employees.
  2. To prevent cross-contamination change areas will be equipped with separate storage facilities for protective work clothing and equipment and for street clothes.
  3. Employees will not leave the workplace wearing any protective clothing or equipment that is required to be worn during the work shift.

Showers

  1. Shower facilities will be provided, where feasible, for use by employees whose airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL.
  2. Where shower facilities are available employees will shower at the end of the work shift. An adequate supply of cleansing agents and towels will be provided.

Eating facilities

  1. Lunchroom facilities or eating area will be provided for employees whose airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL.
  2. Lunchroom facilities or eating areas will be readily accessible to employees and as free as practicable from lead contamination.
  3. Employees whose airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL will wash their hands and face prior to eating, drinking, smoking or applying cosmetics.
  4. Employees will not enter lunchroom facilities or eating areas with protective work clothing or equipment unless surface lead dust has been removed by vacuuming, downdraft booth, or other cleaning method that limits dispersion of lead dust.

Hand Washing facilities

  1. Adequate handwashing facilities will be provided for use by employees exposed to lead.
  2. Where showers are not provided employees will wash their hands and face at the end of the workshift.

11.0 Medical Surveillance

General

  1. Biological monitoring will be made available to employees occupationally exposed to lead at or above the action level, and as interim protection for employees. Biological monitoring will be done for lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels.
  2. A medical surveillance program will be instituted to include biological monitoring and medical examinations for all employees who may be exposed above the action level for more than 30 days in any consecutive 12 months.
  3. All medical examinations and procedures shall be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician.
  4. Medical surveillance including multiple physician review will be made available without cost to employees and at a reasonable time and place.

Biological monitoring

1. Biological monitoring in the form of blood sampling and analysis for lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels will be given on the following schedule:

  • For employees exposed above the action level for 30 days in 12 consecutive months- at least every 2 months for the first 6 months and every 6 months thereafter.
  • For employees exposed on any day above the action level and employees exposed above the action level for 30 days in 12 months whose last blood test indicated a level at or above 40 ug/dl- at least every two months. This frequency shall continue until two consecutive blood samples indicate a lead level below 40 ug/dl.
  • For each employee who is removed from exposure to lead due to an elevated blood lead level- at least monthly during the removal period.

2. When the results of a blood test indicate that an employee's lead level exceeds the criterion for medical removal a second test will be provided within two weeks after the employer receives the results of the first blood test.

3. Blood lead analysis shall have an accuracy (to a confidence level of 95 percent) within plus or minus 15 percent or 6 ug/dl, whichever is greater, and shall be conducted by a laboratory approved by OSHA.

4. Within five working days after the receipt of biological monitoring results, employees will be notified in writing of their blood lead level. When an employee’s blood lead level exceeds 40 ug/dl he/she will be notified that the standard requires temporary medical removal with Medical Removal Protection benefits when lead level exceeds the numerical criterion for medical removal.

Medical examination and consulations

1. Medical examinations and consultations will be made available to employees exposed above the action level for more than 30 days in 12 consecutive months on the following schedule:

  • At least annually when a test conducted at any time during the preceding 12 months indicated a blood lead level at or above 40 ug/dl.
  • As soon as possible, upon notification that the employee has developed symptoms associated with lead intoxication, the employee desires medical advice concerning the effects of exposure to lead on the employee's ability to procreate a healthy child, the employee is pregnant, or the employee has demonstrated difficulty in breathing using a respirator.
  • As medically appropriate for each employee removed from exposure to lead due to a health risk or otherwise limited based on a final medical determination.

2. The content of medical examinations will be determined by an examining physician and, if requested by an employee, shall include pregnancy testing or an evaluation of male fertility. Medical examinations shall include the following elements:

  • A detailed work history and a medical history, with particular attention to past lead exposure, personal habits (smoking, hygiene), and gastrointestinal, hematologic, renal, cardiovascular, reproductive and neurological problems.
  • A thorough physical examination, with particular attention to teeth, gums, hematologic, gastrointestinal, renal, cardiovascular, and neurological systems. Pulmonary status will be evaluated if respiratory protection is used.
  • A blood pressure measurement.
  • A blood sample which determines: blood lead level, hemoglobin and hematocrit, red cell indices, examination of peripheral smear morphology; zinc protoporphyrin, blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine.
  • A routine urinalysis with microscopic examination.
  • Any laboratory or other test relevant to lead exposure which the examining physician deems necessary.

3. If the university selects the initial physician who conducts the medical examination or consultation, the employee may designate a second physician:

  • To review any findings or recommendations of the initial physician.
  • To conduct examinations, consultations, and laboratory tests as deemed necessary to facilitate the review.

4. Employees will be promptly notified of their right to seek a second medical opinion after an initial physician conducts a medical examination or consultation. The university may condition its participation in, and payment for, the multiple physician review mechanism upon the employee doing the following within fifteen days after receipt of the notification, or receipt of the initial physician's written opinion, whichever is later:

  • The employee informing the university that he/she intends to seek a second medical opinion.
  • The employee initiating steps to make an appointment with a second physician.

5. If the findings or recommendations of the second physician differ from those of the initial physician, then the university and the employee will ensure that efforts are made to resolve any disagreement.

6. If the two physicians are unable to quickly resolve their disagreement, then the university and the employee through their respective physicians will designate a third physician:

  • To review any findings or recommendations of the prior physicians.
  • To conduct examinations, consultations, and laboratory tests to resolve the disagreement.

7. The university will act consistent with the findings and recommendations of the third physician, unless the university and the employee reach an agreement which is consistent with the recommendations of one of the physicians.

8. The initial physician conducting a medical examination or consultation will be provided with the following information:

  • A copy of the OSHA Lead Standard including all Appendices.
  • A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure.
  • The employee's exposure level or anticipated exposure level to lead and any other toxic substance.
  • A description of any personal protective equipment used.
  • Prior blood lead determinations.
  • All prior written medical opinions concerning the employee in the university’s possession or control.

9. This information will be provided to a second or third physician conducting a medical examination or consultation upon their request or the employee’s.

10. The employee will be provided with a copy of a written medical opinion from each examining or consulting physician which contains only the following information:

  • The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any medical condition which would place the employee at increased risk from exposure to lead.
  • Any recommended special protective measures provided to the employee, or limitations placed upon the employee's exposure to lead.
  • Any recommended limitation upon the employee's use of respirators.
  • The results of the blood lead determinations.

11. Each examining and consulting physician will be instructed to:

  • Not reveal to the employer any findings unrelated to exposure to lead.
  • Advise the employee of any medical condition which dictates further medical examination or treatment.

12. The university and an employee may agree upon any alternate physician mechanism instead of the multiple physician review mechanism so long as the alternate mechanism is equally protective.

Chelation

  1. The university will ensure that any person hired by the university will not engage in prophylactic chelation of any employee at any time.
  2. If chelation is performed it will be done under the supervision of a licensed physician in a clinical setting with appropriate medical monitoring and the employee will be notified in writing prior to its occurrence.

12.0 Medical Removal Protection

Temporary medical removal

  1. An employee will be removed from work having an exposure to lead above the action level on each occasion that a periodic and a follow-up blood test indicates lead levels above 50 ug/dl.
  2. An employee shall be removed from work having an exposure to lead above the action level on each occasion that a final medical determination results in a finding, that the employee has a medical condition which places him/her at increased risk to health from exposure to lead.
  3. The phrase "final medical determination" means the written medical opinion on the employees' health status by an examining physician.
  4. Where a final medical determination results in any recommended special protective measures, or limitations on an employee's exposure to lead, the university shall implement and act consistent with the recommendation.

Return of employee to former job status

1. An employee will be returned to his or her former job status:

  • When two consecutive blood sampling tests indicate that the blood lead level is below 40 ug/dl for an employee removed due to a blood lead level above 50 ug/dl.
  • When a subsequent final medical determination shows that the employee no longer has a medical condition that places him/her at increased risk from exposure to lead, for an employee removed due to a final medical determination.

Removal of other employee special protective measure and limitations

1. Any limitations placed on an employee will be removed and any special protective measures will be ended when a subsequent final medical determination indicates that these are no longer necessary.

Employer options pending a final medical determination

1. Where the multiple physician review mechanism has not yet resulted in a final medical determination the following actions will be taken:

  • The employee may be removed from exposure to lead, special protective measures may be provided, or limitations may be placed upon the employee, consistent with the medical opinion of any of the physicians who have reviewed the employee's health status.
  • The employee may be returned to his/ her former job status, special protective measures provided may be ended, and limitations may be removed, consistent with the medical opinion of any of the physicians who have reviewed the employee's health status, with the following exceptions: If the initial removal, special protection, or limitation of the employee resulted from a final medical determination which differed from the opinion of the initial physician or; if the employee has been on removal status for the preceding eighteen months due to an elevated blood lead level, then the university shall await a final medical determination.

Medical removal protection benefits

  1. An employee will be provided with up to eighteen months of medical removal protection benefits on each occasion that an employee is removed from exposure to lead or otherwise limited.
  2. The requirement that medical removal protection benefits be provided means that, as long as the job the employee was removed from continues, the university shall maintain the normal earnings, seniority and other employment benefits, including the right to his or her former job status as though the employee had not been medically removed from the job or otherwise medically limited.
  3. During the period that an employee is medically removed from his/her job or otherwise medically limited, medical removal protection benefits may depend on the employee's participation in follow-up medical surveillance.
  4. If a removed employee files a claim for workers' compensation payments for a lead related disability, then medical removal protection benefits shall be provided pending disposition of the claim. To the extent that an award is made to the employee for earnings lost during the period of removal, the medical removal protection benefits shall be reduced by that amount. The university shall receive no credit for workers' compensation payments received by the employee for treatment related expenses.
  5. The university’s obligation to provide medical removal protection benefits to a removed employee will be reduced to the extent that the employee receives compensation for earnings lost during the period of removal from a public or employer - funded compensation program, or receives income from employment with another employer made possible by virtue of the employee's removal.
  6. If an employee is removed from exposure to lead or has limitations placed on him/here from the effects of lead exposure medical removal protection benefits will be provided to the employee.

13.0 Employee Information and Training

Hazard Communication

  1. All employees exposed to lead will receive information consistent with the requirements of OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard, including but not limited to the requirements concerning warning signs and labels, and material safety data sheets (MSDS).

Additional training

  1. For employees who are subject to exposure to lead above the action level or who are subject to exposure to lead compounds which may cause skin or eye irritation (e.g., lead arsenate, lead azide), an additional training program will be provided.
  2. The training program will be provided prior to the time of job assignment.
  3. Training will be provided at least annually for each employee who is subject to lead exposure above the action level.
  4. Employees will be trained in the following:
  • The content of this standard and Employee Information on Lead.
  • The specific nature of the operations which could result in exposure to lead above the action level.
  • The purpose, proper selection, fitting, use, and limitations of respirators.
  • A description of the medical surveillance program, and the medical removal protection program including information about the adverse health effects from excessive exposure to lead (with particular attention to the adverse reproductive effects on both males and females and hazards to the fetus and additional precautions for employees who are pregnant).
  • The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment including the work practices described in Appendix B of the OSHA regulations.
  • The contents of any compliance plan in effect.
  • Instructions to employees that chelating agents should not routinely be used to remove lead from their bodies and should only be used under the direction of a licensed physician.
  • The employee's right of access to records.

Access to information and training materials

  1. A copy of this standard will be made readily available to all affected employees.
  2. All materials relating to the employee information and training program will be made available to affected employees and their designated representatives, and to OSHA.

14.0 Signs

1. Signs required by other regulations may be used in addition to, or in combination with, signs required by this section.
2. No statement will appears on or near any sign required by this section which contradicts or detracts from the meaning of the required sign.
3. The following warning signs shall be posted in each work area where an employees exposure to lead is above the PEL:

WARNING
LEAD WORK AREA
POISON
NO SMOKING OR EATING

4. Signs required by this section will be illuminated and cleaned as necessary so that the legend is readily visible.

15.0 Recordkeeping

Exposure Assessment

1. A record will be maintained of all monitoring and other data used in conducting employee exposure assessments.

2. Exposure monitoring records will include:

  • The date, number, duration, location and results of each samples taken, including a description of the sampling procedure used to determine representative employee exposure.
  • A description of the sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy.
  • The type of respiratory protective devices worn.
  • Name, social security number, and job classification of the employee monitored and of all other employees whose exposure the measurement is intended to represent.
  • The environmental variables that could affect the measurement of employee exposure.

3. Records shall be maintained in accordance with the provisions of 29 CFR 1910.20.

Medical surveillance

1. A record will be maintained for each employee subject to medical surveillance.

2. This record shall include:

  • The name, social security number, and description of the duties of the employee.
  • A copy of the physician's written opinions.
  • Results of any airborne exposure monitoring done on or for that employee and provided to the physician.
  • Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to lead.

3. The university will keep, or assure that the examining physician keeps, the following medical records:

  • A copy of the medical examination results including medical and work history.
  • A description of the laboratory procedures and a copy of any standards or guidelines used to interpret the test results or references to that information.
  • A copy of the results of biological monitoring.

4. Medical records will be maintained in accordance with the provisions of 29 CFR 1910.20.

Medical removals

1. A record will be maintained for each employee removed from exposure to lead.

2. Each record shall include:

  • The name and social security number of the employee.
  • The date of each occasion that the employee was removed from exposure to lead as well as the corresponding date on which the employee was returned to his or her former job status.
  • A brief explanation of how each removal was accomplished.
  • A statement with respect to each removal indicating whether or not the reason for the removal was an elevated blood lead level.

3. Medical removal record will be maintained for at least the duration of an employee's employment.

Objective date for exemption from requiremetn for initial monitoring

1. Objective data records will be maintained for at least 30 years.

Availability

1. All records required to be maintained will be made available to affected employees, former employees, and their designated representatives, and to OSHA.

Transfer of records

1. If the university ceases to do business, the successor employer shall receive and retain all records required to be maintained by this section.

2. If the university ceases to do business and there is no successor employer to receive the records required by this section, these records shall be transmitted to OSHA.

3. At the expiration of the retention period for the records required to be maintained by this section, the university shall notify OSHA at least 3 months prior to the disposal of the records and shall transmit those records to OSHA if requested within the period.

4. The university shall also comply with any additional requirements involving transfer of records set forth in 29 CFR 1910.20(h).

16.0 Observation of Monitoring

Employee observation

1. Affected employees or their designated representatives will be provided with an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to lead.

Observation procedures

1. Whenever observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to lead requires entry into an area where the use of respirators, protective clothing or equipment is required, the observer shall be provided with this equipment. The observer will comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

2. Without interfering with the monitoring, observers shall be entitled to:

  • Receive an explanation of the measurement procedures.
  • Observe all steps related to the monitoring of lead performed at the place of exposure.
  • Record the results obtained or receive copies of the results when returned by the laboratory.

Lead Paint Disclosure

1.0 Purpose

A seller or lessor of target housing shall disclose to the purchaser or lessee the presence of any known lead-based paint, provide available reports, provide a lead hazard information pamphlet, give purchaser a 10 day opportunity to conduct a risk assessment, and attach a disclosure and warning statement to the sales or leasing contract.

2.0 Scope

These regulations apply to all transactions to sell or lease target housing with the following exceptions:

  • Sales of target housing at foreclosure.
  • Leases of target housing found to be lead free by a certified inspector.
  • Short-term leases of 100 days or less where no lease renewal can occur.
  • Renewals of existing lease in which information has been previously disclosed.

3.0 Definitions

Target housing- any housing constructed prior to 1978 with the following exceptions:

  • Housing for the elderly or persons with disabilities unless a child less than 6 resides in the housing.
  • Any 0-bedroom dwelling

0-bedroom dwellings- a residential dwelling in which the living area is not separated from the sleeping area; includes efficiencies, studio apartments, dormitory housing, and rentals of individual rooms in residential dwelling.

Common area - a portion of a building generally accessible to all residential/users including hallways, stairways, laundry, recreational rooms, playgrounds, community centers, and boundary fences.

Lead-based paint free - target housing that is free of paint that contains lead equal to or in excess of 1.0 mg/sq.cm. or 0.5% by weight.

Residential dwelling:

  • A single-family dwelling, including attached structures or
  • A single-family dwelling unit in a structure that contains more than one separate residential dwelling unit.

4.0 Disclosure Requirements

The following activities shall be completed before the purchaser or lessee is obligated to purchase or lease target housing that is not exempted under these regulations.

  • An EPA approved lead hazard information pamphlet (Protect Your Family From Lead In Your Home, EPA # 747-K-99-001) will be provided to the purchaser or lessee.
  • The presence of any known lead-based paint, and its location and condition shall be disclosed to the purchaser or lessee. The seller or lessor is not obligated to conduct any evaluation or reduction activities.
  • Any records or reports pertaining to lead-based paint in the target housing and common areas shall be provided to the purchaser or lessee. This includes other residential dwelling in multifamily target housing.

5.0 Certificate and Acknowledgement of Disclosure

Each contract to lease target housing shall include the following elements:

  • A lead warning statement with the following language:
  • "Housing built before 1978 may contain lead-based paint. Lead from paint, paint chips, and dust can pose health hazards if not managed properly. Lead exposure is especially harmful to young children and pregnant women. Before renting pre-1978 housing, lessors must disclose the presence of lead-based paint and/or lead based paint hazards in the dwelling. Lessees must also receive a federally approved pamphlet on lead poisoning prevention."
  • A statement by the lessor disclosing the presence of any known lead-based paint, and its location and condition in the target housing or indicating no knowledge of the presence of lead-based paint.
  • A list of any records or reports pertaining to lead-based paint in the housing that have been provided to the lessee. If no records or reports are available, the lessor shall so indicate.
  • A statement by the lessee affirming receipt of the information in b and c of this section, and the lead hazard pamphlet.

Mold

1.0 Introduction

Molds are fungi that can be found both indoors and outdoors. Molds grow best in warm, damp, and humid conditions, and spread and reproduce by making spores; which can survive harsh environmental conditions, such as drought, that do not support normal mold growth.

Molds are found in virtually every environment and can be detected, both indoors and outdoors, year round. Mold growth is encouraged by warm and humid conditions. Outdoors they can be found in shady, damp areas or places where leaves or other vegetation is decomposing. Indoors they can be found where humidity levels are high, such as basements or showers.

Mold will grow in places with a lot of moisture, such as around leaks in roofs, on ceiling tiles, around windows, or pipe insulation, or where there has been flooding. Mold grows well on paper products, cardboard, ceiling tiles, and wood products. Mold can also grow in dust, paints, wallpaper, insulation, drywall, carpet, fabric, and upholstery.

Mold can enter your space through open doorways, windows, vents, and heating and air conditioning systems. Mold in the air outside can also attach itself to clothing, shoes, bags, and pets can and be carried indoors.

If mold is growing in your office or dormitory, you should contact Facilities Management to have the mold removed and have the moisture problem corrected. Mold growth can be removed from hard surfaces with commercial products, soap and water, or a bleach solution of no more than 1 cup of bleach in 1 gallon of water.

Mold growth, which often looks like spots, can be many different colors, and can smell musty. Since the effect of mold on people can vary greatly, either because of the amount or type of mold, you cannot depend on sampling alone to know your health risk. The best practice is to remove the mold and work to prevent future growth.

2.0 Health Effects

Fungal diseases may sound mysterious and dangerous, but often they cause familiar infections. Yeast infections, thrush, ring worm, eye, lung, skin, hair, and nail infections can all be caused by fungi. Fungi are lurking everywhere and interact with humans, animals, and plants in a variety of ways. Some of these interactions can be beneficial; for example, both penicillin and bread, wine and beer use ingredients made from fungi. However, certain types of fungi can be harmful to health. Like bacteria and viruses, some fungi can act as pathogens. Human fungal diseases can occur due to infection or fungal toxins.

Fungi can be found in plants, soil, the environment, certain trees, decaying vegetation, and decomposing organic matter, even on our skin, mucus membranes and intestinal tract. Symptoms for fungal diseases can be as common as itching, coughing, fever, wheezing, but they can also be as serious as meningitis or even death.

Exposure to damp and moldy environments may cause a variety of health effects, or none at all. In general people should avoid areas that are likely to have mold, such as compost piles, cut grass, and wooded areas.

Some people are sensitive to molds. For these people, exposure to molds can cause symptoms such as nasal stuffiness, throat irritation, eye irritation, coughing or wheezing, or in some cases skin irritation. People with mold allergies may have more severe reactions. Immune-compromised people and people with chronic lung illnesses, such as obstructive lung disease, may get serious infections in their lungs when they are exposed to mold. Severe reactions may occur among workers exposed to large amounts of molds in occupational settings, such as farmers working around moldy hay. Severe reactions may include fever and shortness of breath. Some people with chronic lung illnesses, such as obstructive lung disease, may develop mold infections in their lungs.

If you believe you are ill because of exposure to mold in the building where you work, you should first consult your health care provider to determine the appropriate action to take to protect your health and will decide whether you need referral to a specialist. Such specialists might include an allergist who treats patients with mold allergies or an infectious disease physician who treats mold infections. If an infection is in the lungs, a pulmonary physician might be recommended. Patients who have been exposed to molds in their workplace may be referred to an occupational physician.

Notify your supervisor or residence director about your concern so that appropriate action can take place to clean up and prevent mold growth. To find out more about mold, remediation of mold, or workplace safety and health guidelines and regulations, you may also want to contact your local (city, county, or state) health department.

3.0 Prevention and Control

In your office or dormitory you can control mold growth by:

  • Controlling humidity levels;
  • Promptly fixing leaky roofs, windows, and pipes;
  • Thoroughly cleaning and drying after flooding, carpet cleaning, etc.;
  • Ventilating shower, laundry, and cooking areas.

If you choose to use bleach to clean up mold:

  • Never mix bleach with ammonia or other household cleaners. Mixing bleach with ammonia or other cleaning products will produce dangerous, toxic fumes.
  • Open windows and doors to provide fresh air.
  • Wear non-porous gloves and protective eye wear.
  • Consult the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guide titled Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings. http://www.epa.gov/mold/mold_remediation.html
  • Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions when using bleach or any other cleaning product.

Recommendations:

  • Keep humidity levels as low as you can—no higher than 35%--all day long. An air conditioner or dehumidifier will help you keep the level low. Bear in mind that humidity levels change over the course of a day with changes in the moisture in the air and the air temperature, so you will need to check the humidity levels more than once a day.
  • Use an air conditioner or a dehumidifier during humid months.
  • Be sure your area has adequate ventilation, including exhaust fans.
  • Add mold inhibitors to paints before application.
  • Clean bathrooms with fungicidal products.
  • Do not carpet bathrooms and basements.
  • Remove or replace previously soaked carpets and upholstery.

4.0 Inspections and Sampling

Generally, it is not necessary to identify the species of mold growing in your space. Current evidence indicates that allergies are the type of diseases most often associated with molds. Since the susceptibility of individuals can vary greatly either because of the amount or type of mold, sampling and culturing are not reliable in determining your health risk. If you are susceptible to mold and mold is seen or smelled, there is a potential health risk; therefore, no matter what type of mold is present, you should arrange for its removal.

Furthermore, standards for judging what is an acceptable, tolerable, or normal quantity of mold, have not been established. Also, the results of samples taken in your unique situation cannot be interpreted without physical inspection of the contaminated area or without considering the building’s characteristics and the factors that led to the present condition.

However, if you believe you are experiencing a mold problem in your office or dormitory you should contact the safety office to conduct a visual inspection of the area to confirm the presence and identify the source if possible. In the event that mold cannot be visually confirmed and there are no significant signs of related moisture issues; leaks, stained ceiling tiles, etc. then air sampling may be necessary to confirm the presence of a mold problem based on the relative indoor/outdoor concentrations.

Common Indoor molds

  • Aspergillus  A blue-green to brown mold. It is commonly found in soil, plant debris, and building materials. Causative agent of Aspergillosis.
  • Alternaria A dark brown mold. Grows readily in plant debris and soil.
  • Cladosporium A dark green to black mold. Found commonly airborne and in decaying vegetable matter.
  • Penicillium A bluish green mold. It is found most abundantly in the soil and plant material, specifically fruits and vegetables. Used medicinally as an antibiotic.

“Toxic” Black Mold

  • Stachybotrys  A greenish-black mold. It can grow on material with a high cellulose and low nitrogen content, such as fiberboard, gypsum board, paper, dust, and lint. Growth occurs when there is moisture from water damage, excessive humidity, water leaks, condensation, water infiltration, or flooding. Constant moisture is required for its growth.

Respiratory Protection

1.0 Introduction

To control occupational diseases caused by air contaminates the primary objective is to prevent atmospheric contamination. This will be accomplished as far as feasible by engineering control measures (for example, enclosure or confinement of the operation, general and local ventilation, and substitution of less toxic materials). When effective engineering controls are not feasible, or while they are being instituted, appropriate respirators must be used. A respirator is a safety device covering at least the nose and mouth that protects the wearer against hazardous atmospheres containing particulates/dusts, toxic vapors and gases, and oxygen deficiency. Approximately five million employees in the U.S. use respirators. Improper use of respirators can result in overexposure to hazardous contaminants, oxygen deficiency, or acute and chronic health effects.

2.0 Definitions

Air-purifying respirator- a respirator with an air-purifying filter, cartridge, or canister that removes specific air contaminants by passing air through an air-purifying element.

Atmosphere-supplying respirator- a respirator that supplies the user with breathing air from a source independent of the ambient atmosphere, and includes supplied-air respirators (SARs) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) units.

Canister or cartridge- a container with a filter, sorbent, or catalyst, or combination of these items, which removes specific contaminants from the air passed through the container.

Demand respirator- an atmosphere-supplying respirator that admits breathing air to the facepiece only when a negative pressure is created inside the facepiece by inhalation.

Emergency situation- any occurrence such as equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment that results in an uncontrolled significant release of an airborne contaminant.

Employee exposure- exposure to a concentration of an airborne contaminant that would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protection.

End-of-service-life indicator (ESLI)- a system that warns the respirator user of the approach of the end of adequate respiratory protection, for example, that the sorbent is approaching saturation or is no longer effective.

Escape-only respirator- a respirator intended to be used only for emergency exit.

Filter or air purifying element- a component used in respirators to remove solid or liquid aerosols from the inspired air.

Filtering facepiece (dust mask)- a negative pressure particulate respirator with a filter as an integral part of the facepiece or with the entire facepiece composed of the filtering medium.

Fit factor- a quantitative estimate of the fit of a particular respirator to a specific individual, and typically estimates the ratio of the concentration of a substance in ambient air to its concentration inside the respirator when worn.

Fit test- the use of a protocol to qualitatively or quantitatively evaluate the fit of a respirator on an individual.

Helmet- a rigid respiratory inlet covering that also provides head protection against impact and penetration.

High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter- a filter that is at least 99.97% efficient in removing particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter. The equivalent NIOSH particulate filters are the N100, R100, and P100 filters.

Hood- a respiratory inlet covering that completely covers the head and neck and may also cover portions of the shoulders and torso.

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH)- an atmosphere that poses an immediate threat to life, would cause irreversible adverse health effects, or would impair an individual's ability to escape from a dangerous atmosphere.

Loose-fitting facepiece- a respiratory inlet covering that is designed to form a partial seal with the face.

Negative pressure respirator (tight fitting)- a respirator in which the air pressure inside the facepiece is negative during inhalation with respect to the ambient air pressure outside the respirator.

Oxygen deficient atmosphere- an atmosphere with an oxygen content below 19.5% by volume.

Physician or other licensed health care professional (PLHCP)- an individual whose legally permitted scope of practice allows him or her to independently provide, or be delegated the responsibility to provide, some or all of the health care services required by this standard.

Positive pressure respirator- a respirator in which the pressure inside the respiratory inlet covering exceeds the ambient air pressure outside the respirator.

Powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR)- an air-purifying respirator that uses a blower to force the ambient air through air-purifying elements to the inlet covering.

Pressure demand respirator- a positive pressure atmosphere-supplying respirator that admits breathing air to the facepiece when the positive pressure is reduced inside the facepiece by inhalation.

Qualitative fit test (QLFT)- a pass/fail fit test to assess the adequacy of respirator fit that relies on the individual's response to the test agent.

Quantitative fit test (QNFT)- an assessment of the adequacy of respirator fit by numerically measuring the amount of leakage into the respirator.

Respiratory inlet covering- that portion of a respirator that forms the protective barrier between the user's respiratory tract and an air-purifying device or breathing air source, or both. It may be a facepiece, helmet, hood, suit, or a mouthpiece respirator with nose clamp.

Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)- an atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the breathing air source is designed to be carried by the user.

Service life- the period of time that a respirator, filter or sorbent, or other respiratory equipment provides adequate protection to the wearer.

Supplied-air respirator (SAR) or airline respirator- an atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the source of breathing air is not designed to be carried by the user.

Tight-fitting facepiece- a respiratory inlet covering that forms a complete seal with the face.

User seal check- an action conducted by the respirator user to determine if the respirator is properly seated to the face.

3.0 Respiratory Protection Program

Respirator Use Required

  1. Where respirators are necessary to protect the health of the employee, the Safety Office will establish and implement a written respiratory protection program with worksite-specific procedures.
  2. The program will be updated as necessary to reflect those changes in workplace conditions that affect respirator use.
  3. The following provisions will be included in the program.
    1. Procedures for selecting respirators for use in the workplace.
    2. Medical evaluations of employees required to use respirators.
    3. Fit testing procedures for tight-fitting respirators.
    4. Procedures for proper use of respirators in routine and reasonably foreseeable emergency situations.
    5. Procedures and schedules for cleaning, disinfecting, storing, inspecting, repairing, and maintaining respirators.
    6. Procedures to ensure adequate air quality, quantity, and flow of breathing air for atmosphere-supplying respirators.
    7. Training of employees in the respiratory hazards to which they are potentially exposed during routine and emergency situations.
    8. Training of employees in the proper use of respirators, including putting on and removing them, any limitations on their use, and their maintenance.
    9. Procedures for regularly evaluating the effectiveness of the program.
  4. The Safety Manager will administer the respiratory protection program and conduct the required evaluations of program effectiveness.
  5. Respirators, training, and medical evaluations will be provided at no cost to the employee.

Respirator Use Not Required

  1. Respirators may be provided at the request of employees when a respirator is not required. If a respirator is used voluntarily, the respirator user will be provided with the information contained in Appendix D of the OSHA regulations.
  2. In addition, the university will ensure that the employee using a respirator voluntarily is medically able to use that respirator, and that the respirator is cleaned, stored, and maintained properly. Fit testing and training is not required. The university will not include in its respiratory protection program those employees whose only use of respirators involves the voluntary use of filtering facepieces (dust masks).

4.0 Selection of Respirators

General Requirements

  1. Appropriate respirator will be supplied based on the respiratory hazards.
  2. Only NIOSH-certified respirator will be used. The respirator will be used in compliance with the conditions of its certification.
  3. Respiratory hazards in the workplace will be identified and evaluated by the Safety Office. This evaluation will include a reasonable estimate of employee exposures to respiratory hazards and an identification of the contaminant's chemical state and physical form. If the employee exposure cannot be identified or reasonably estimated the exposure will be considered IDLH.
  4. Respirators will be selected from a sufficient number of respirator models and sizes so that the respirator is acceptable to, and correctly fits, the user.
  5. Compressed breathing air will meet at least the requirements for Grade D breathing air.
  6. All filters, cartridges and canisters used in the workplace will be labeled and color coded with the NIOSH approval label.

Respirators for IDLH Atmospheres

  1. The following respirators will be provided for employee use in IDLH atmospheres:
    1. A full facepiece pressure demand SCBA certified by NIOSH for a minimum service life of thirty minutes, or
    2. A combination full facepiece pressure demand supplied-air respirator (SAR) with auxiliary self-contained air supply.
  2. Respirators provided only for escape from IDLH atmospheres will be NIOSH-certified for escape from the atmosphere in which they will be used.
  3. All oxygen-deficient atmospheres will be considered IDLH.

Respirators for Atmospheres that are not IDLH

  1. A respirator that is adequate to protect health and complies with all other OSHA requirements will be provided to employees.
  2. The respirator selected shall be appropriate for the chemical state and physical form of the contaminant.
  3. The following will be provided for protection against gases and vapors:
    1. An atmosphere-supplying respirator, or
    2. An air-purifying respirator, provided that is equipped with an end-of-service-life indicator (ESLI) certified by NIOSH for the contaminant. If there is no ESLI, a change schedule that is based on objective information that will ensure that cartridges are changed before the end of their service life will be implemented. The information relied upon and the basis for the cartridge change schedule will be included in the respirator program.
  4. For protection against particulates, the following will be provided:
    1. An atmosphere-supplying respirator; or
    2. An air-purifying respirator equipped with a filter certified by NIOSH as a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, or an air-purifying respirator equipped with a filter certified for particulates by NIOSH.

5.0 Medical Evaluation

General

A medical evaluation will be performed to determine the employee's ability to use a respirator before the employee is fit tested or required to use the respirator in the workplace. Medical evaluations are not required for those who use escape only respirators. Users of non-voluntary filtering facepiece respirators (dust masks) must be medically evaluated. Voluntary users of dust masks are not required to be medically evaluated. All users of air-supplied and PAPR respirators must also be medically evaluated. Medical evaluations are not required annually unless deemed necessary by a physician.

Procedures

  1. The university will use a physician to perform medical evaluations. The physician will use a medical questionnaire or a medical examination that obtains the same information as the medical questionnaire.
  2. The medical evaluation shall obtain the information requested by Appendix C of the OSHA regulations (PDF).
  3. Employees who refuse to be medically evaluated cannot be assigned a respirator.

Follow-up Medical Examination

  1. A follow-up medical examination will be provided for an employee who gives a positive response to any question among questions 1 through 8 in Section 2, Part A of Appendix C or whose initial medical examination demonstrates the need for a follow-up medical examination.
  2. The follow-up medical examination shall include any medical tests, consultations, or diagnostic procedures that the physician deems necessary to make a final determination.

Administration of Medical Questionnaire and Examination

  1. The medical questionnaire and examinations will be administered confidentially during the employee's normal working hours or at a time and place convenient to the employee. The medical questionnaire will be administered in a manner that ensures that the employee understands its content.
  2. The employee will have an opportunity to discuss the questionnaire and examination results with the physician.

Supplemental Information for Physicians

  1. The following information will be provided to the physician before the physician makes a recommendation concerning an employee's ability to use a respirator:
    1. The type and weight of the respirator to be used by the employee.
    2. The duration and frequency of respirator use.
    3. The expected physical work effort.
    4. Additional protective clothing and equipment to be worn.
    5. Temperature and humidity extremes that may be encountered.
  2. A copy of the written respiratory protection program will be provided to the physician.

Medical Determination

  1. In determining the employee's ability to use a respirator, the university will obtain a written recommendation regarding the employee's ability to use the respirator from the physician. The recommendation shall provide only the following information:
    1. Any limitations on respirator use related to the medical condition of the employee, or relating to the workplace conditions in which the respirator will be used, including whether or not the employee is medically able to use the respirator;
    2. The need, if any, for follow-up medical evaluations; and
    3. A statement that the physician provided the employee with a copy of the physicians written recommendation.
  2. If the respirator is a negative pressure respirator and the physician finds a medical condition that may place the employee's health at increased risk if the respirator is used, a PAPR will be provided if the medical evaluation finds that the employee can use such a respirator.

Additional Medical Evaluations

  1. Additional medical evaluations will be provided if:
    1. An employee reports medical signs or symptoms that are related to his/her ability to use a respirator.
    2. A physician, supervisor, or the Safety Manager determines that an employee needs to be reevaluated.
    3. Information from the respiratory protection program, including observations made during fit testing and program evaluation, indicates a need for employee reevaluation.
    4. A change occurs in workplace conditions (e.g., physical work effort, protective clothing, temperature) that may result in a substantial increase in the physiological burden placed on an employee.

6.0 Fit Testing

  1. Employees using a tight-fitting facepiece respirator must pass an appropriate qualitative fit test (QLFT) or quantitative fit test (QNFT).
  2. An employee using a tight-fitting facepiece respirator will be fit tested prior to initial use of the respirator, whenever a different respirator facepiece is used, and at least annually thereafter.
  3. An additional fit test will be performed whenever the employee reports, or the physician, supervisor, or Safety Manager observes changes in the employee's physical condition that could affect respirator fit.
  4. If after passing a QLFT or QNFT, the employee notifies the Safety Manager, supervisor, or physician that the fit of the respirator is unacceptable, the employee will be given an opportunity to select a different respirator facepiece and to be retested.
  5. The fit test will be administered using an OSHA-accepted QLFT or QNFT protocol. OSHA accepted protocols and procedures are contained in Appendix A of the OSHA regulations.
  6. QLFT may only be used to fit test negative pressure air-purifying respirators that must achieve a fit factor of 100 or less.
  7. If the fit factor is equal to or greater than 100 for tight-fitting half facepieces, or equal to or greater than 500 for tight-fitting full facepieces, the QNFT has been passed with that respirator.
  8. Fit testing of tight-fitting atmosphere-supplying respirators and tight-fitting powered air-purifying respirators will be accomplished by performing quantitative or qualitative fit testing in the negative pressure mode, regardless of the mode of operation (negative or positive pressure) that is used for respiratory protection.
  9. Qualitative fit testing of these respirators shall be accomplished by temporarily converting the respirator user's actual facepiece into a negative pressure respirator with appropriate filters, or by using an identical negative pressure air-purifying respirator facepiece with the same sealing surfaces as a surrogate for the atmosphere-supplying or powered air-purifying respirator facepiece.
  10. Quantitative fit testing of these respirators shall be accomplished by modifying the facepiece to allow sampling inside the facepiece in the breathing zone of the user, midway between the nose and mouth. This requirement shall be accomplished by installing a permanent sampling probe onto a surrogate facepiece, or by using a sampling adapter designed to temporarily provide a means of sampling air from inside the facepiece.
  11. Any modifications to the respirator facepiece for fit testing shall be completely removed, and the facepiece restored to NIOSH-approved configuration, before that facepiece can be used in the workplace.

7.0 Use of Respirators

Facepiece Seal Protection

  1. 1. Respirators with tight-fitting facepieces will not be worn by employees who have:
    1. Facial hair that comes between the sealing surface of the facepiece and the face or that interferes with valve function; or
    2. Any condition that interferes with the face-to-facepiece seal or valve function.
  2. PAPRs with loose-fitting hoods or helmets can be worn by employees with facial hair.
  3. If an employee wears corrective glasses or goggles or other personal protective equipment, the equipment will be worn in a manner that does not interfere with the seal of the facepiece to the face of the user.
  4. For all tight-fitting respirators, employees will perform a user seal check each time they put on the respirator using the procedures in Appendix B-1 of the OSHA regulations or procedures recommended by the respirator manufacturer that the employer demonstrates are as effective as those in Appendix B-1.

Continuing Respirator Effectiveness

  1. When there is a change in work area conditions or degree of employee exposure or stress that may affect respirator effectiveness, the continued effectiveness of the respirator will be reevaluated.
  2. When employees leave the respirator use area they will:
    1. Wash their faces and respirator facepieces as necessary to prevent eye or skin irritation associated with respirator use.
    2. Replace the respirator or filter, cartridge, or canister elements if they detect vapor or gas breakthrough, changes in breathing resistance, or leakage of the facepiece.

Procedures for IDLK Atmospheres

  1. One employee will be located outside the IDLH atmosphere.
  2. Visual, voice, or signal line communication will be maintained between the employee in the IDLH atmosphere and the employee located outside the IDLH atmosphere.
  3. The employee located outside the IDLH atmosphere will be trained and equipped to provide effective emergency rescue.
  4. The Safety Manager will be notified before the employee located outside the IDLH atmosphere enter the IDLH atmosphere to provide emergency rescue.
  5. Employees located outside the IDLH atmospheres will be equipped with:
    1. Pressure demand or other positive pressure SCBAs, or a pressure demand or other positive pressure supplied-air respirator with auxiliary SCBA; and either
    2. Appropriate retrieval equipment for removing the employee.

8.0 Maintenance and Care of Respirators

Cleaning and Disinfecting

  1. Employees will be provided with a respirator that is clean, sanitary, and in good working order.
  2. Respirators will be cleaned and disinfected using the procedures in Appendix B-2 of the OSHA regulations, or procedures recommended by the respirator manufacturer.
  3. Respirators issued for the exclusive use of an employee will be cleaned and disinfected as often as necessary to be maintained in a sanitary condition.
  4. Respirators issued to more than one employee will be cleaned and disinfected before being worn by different individuals.
  5. Respirators maintained for emergency use will be cleaned and disinfected after each use.
  6. Respirators used in fit testing and training will be cleaned and disinfected after each use.

Storage

1.  All respirators will be stored to protect them from damage, contamination, dust, sunlight, extreme temperatures, excessive moisture, and damaging chemicals, and they will be packed or stored to prevent deformation of the facepiece and exhalation valve.

2.  Emergency respirators will be:

  • Kept accessible to the work area.
  • Stored in compartments or in covers that are clearly marked as containing emergency respirators.
  • Stored in accordance with any applicable manufacturer instructions.

Inspection

1. Respirators will be inspected as follows:

  • All respirators used in routine situations will be inspected before each use and during cleaning.
  • All respirators maintained for use in emergency situations will be inspected at least monthly and in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations, and will be checked for proper function before and after each use.
  • Emergency escape-only respirators will be inspected before being carried into the workplace for use.

2. Respirator inspections will include the following:

  • A check of respirator function, tightness of connections, and the condition of the various parts including, the facepiece, head straps, valves, connecting tube, and cartridges, canisters or filters.
  • A check of elastomeric parts for pliability and signs of deterioration.

3. Self-contained breathing apparatus will be inspected monthly. Air and oxygen cylinders shall be maintained in a fully charged state and will be recharged when the pressure falls to 90% of the manufacturer's recommended pressure level. The regulator and warning devices will be inspected.

4. For respirators maintained for emergency use, the university will:

  • Certify the respirator by documenting the date the inspection was performed, the name of the person who made the inspection, the findings, required remedial action, and a serial number or other means of identifying the inspected respirator.
  • Provide this information on a tag or label that is attached to the storage compartment for the respirator, is kept with the respirator, or is included in inspection reports stored as paper or electronic files. This information will be maintained until replaced following a subsequent certification.

Repairs

  1. Respirators that fail an inspection or are otherwise found to be defective will be removed from service.
  2. Repairs or adjustments to respirators will be made only by persons appropriately trained to perform such operations and shall use only the respirator manufacturer's NIOSH-approved parts designed for the respirator.
  3. Repairs will be made according to the manufacturer's recommendations and specifications for the type and extent of repairs performed.
  4. Reducing and admission valves, regulators, and alarms will be adjusted or repaired only by the manufacturer or a technician trained by the manufacturer.

9.0 Training and Information

1. The Safety Office will ensure that each employee can demonstrate knowledge of at least the following:

  • Why the respirator is necessary and how improper fit, usage, or maintenance can compromise the protective effect of the respirator.
  • What the limitations and capabilities of the respirator are.
  • How to use the respirator effectively in emergency situations, including situations in which the respirator malfunctions.
  • How to inspect, put on and remove, use, and check the seals of the respirator.
  • What the procedures are for maintenance and storage of the respirator.
  • How to recognize medical signs and symptoms that may limit or prevent the effective use of respirators.
  • The general requirements of this standard.

2. The training will be conducted in a manner that is understandable to the employee.

3. Training will be performed prior to requiring the employee to use a respirator in the workplace.

4. Retraining shall be administered annually, and when the following situations occur:

  • Changes in the workplace or the type of respirator render previous training obsolete.
  • Inadequacies in the employee's knowledge or use of the respirator indicate that the employee has not retained the requisite understanding or skill.
  • Any other situation in which retraining appears necessary to ensure safe respirator use.

5. The basic advisory information on respirators, as presented in Appendix D of the OSHA regulations, will be provided to employees who wear respirators when such use is not required by this program.

10.0 Program Evaluation

1. The Safety Office will conduct evaluations of the workplace as necessary to ensure that the provisions of the written program are being effectively implemented.

2. The Safety Office will regularly consult employees required to use respirators to assess employees views on program effectiveness and to identify any problems. Any problems that are identified during this assessment will be corrected. Factors to be assessed include, but are not limited to:

  • Respirator fit (including the ability to use the respirator without interfering with effective workplace performance).
  • Appropriate respirator selection for the hazards to which the employee is exposed.
  • Proper respirator use under the workplace conditions the employee encounters.
  • Proper respirator maintenance.

11.0 Recordkeeping

1. Records of medical evaluations will be retained and made available in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020.

2. A record of qualitative and quantitative fit tests administered to an employee will be maintained including:

  • The name of the employee tested.
  • Type of fit test performed.
  • Specific make, model, style, and size of respirator tested.
  • Date of test.
  • The pass/fail results for QLFTs or the fit factor and strip chart recording or other recording of the test results for QNFTs.

3. Fit test records will be retained for respirator users until the next fit test is administered.

4. A written copy of the respirator program will be retained by the Safety Office.

5. Written materials required to be retained under this paragraph will be made available upon request to affected employees and to the Assistant Secretary or designee for examination and copying.

12.0 Appendices

The Safety Office will ensure compliance with Appendix A, Appendix B-1, Appendix B-2, Appendix C (PDF), and Appendix D of the OSHA Respiratory Standard.

Silica

1.0 Introduction

This program is designed to reduce or eliminate workplace exposure to crystalline silica. Exposure to crystalline silica can cause silicosis, a serious lung disease. More than one million U.S. workers, including over 100,000 in high risk settings, are occupationally exposed to crystalline silica. A wide range of industries use silica, including construction, mining, maritime industries, foundries, ceramics and glass manufacturing, electronics, agriculture, rock quarry/crushing and abrasives manufacturing.

2.0 Potentical Exposures

The following activities may cause crystalline silica dust to be present in the air:

  • Sawing, hammering, cutting, drilling, grinding, and chipping of concrete or masonry
  • Chipping, hammering, and drilling rock
  • Dry sweeping or pressurized air blowing of concrete, rock, or sand dust
  • Crushing, loading, hauling, and dumping rock
  • Sandblasting
  • Demolition of concrete and masonry structures
  • Concrete mixing
  • Working with ceramics, clay, and pottery

3.0 Materials containing Silica

  1. A product that contains silica must be labeled if the product contains more than 0.1% silica that may be hazardous when used.
  2. The machines used in the operations must be labeled with warning signs indicating silica is being used.
  3. If a material or product contains crystalline silica in quantities greater than 0.1%, there must be a material safety data sheet for it.

4.0 Air Monitoring

  1. The Safety Office will inspect each worksite and work operation to determine if employees are exposed to silica above the PEL. Indicators that an evaluation of employee exposure should be undertaken include:
    1. Information or observation which would indicate employee exposure to silica.
    2. Employee complaint of symptoms which may be attributed to exposure to silica.
    3. Change which may result in an increase in the airborne concentration of silica.
  2. The Safety Office will conduct air monitoring to measure worker exposures and ensure that engineering controls and respiratory protection are providing adequate protection.
  3. Air monitoring information will be made available to workers.
  4. Employees will wear a cyclone assembly and sampling pump throughout the work shift for up to eight hours. Dust samples will be collected from the worker’s breathing zone.
  5. The method of monitoring and analysis will have an accuracy of at least plus or minus 25% for concentrations of airborne silica equal to or greater than the PEL.
  6. If employees are exposed to silica in excess of the PEL monitoring will be repeated quarterly.

5.0 Exposure Limit

  1. OSHA regulations 1910.1000 Table Z-3 will be used to determine the permissible exposure limits for crystalline silica.
  2. The OSHA PELs for crystalline silica are 10mg/m3 divided by the percent of silica in the dust +2 (respirable), and 30 mg/m3 divided by the percent of silica in the dust +2 (total dust). For cristobalite and tridymite, the same formula will be used to determine the PELs, divided by one-half.
  3. NIOSH and ACGIH recommended exposure limits will be considered when determining employee exposure. The recommended NIOSH limit is 0.05 mg/m3 and the ACGIH recommendations are:
    1. 0.05 mg/m3 for cristobalite
    2. 0.1 mg/m3 for quartz
    3. 0.05 mg/m3 for tridymite
    4. 0.1 mg/m3 of contained tripoli respirable quartz

6.0 Medical Surveillance

1. Medical examinations will be made available:

  • To employees prior to their assignment in areas in which airborne concentrations of silica are above the PEL.
  • At least annually for each employee exposed to airborne concentrations of silica above the PEL at any time during the preceding six months.
  • Immediately, upon notification by the employee, that the employee has developed signs or symptoms commonly associated with chronic exposure to silica.

2. The medical examination will include a medical and occupational history to elicit data on signs and symptoms of respiratory disease prior to exposure to silica. A chest x-ray and PFT will be performed at the physicians discretion. The chest x-ray will be read by a certified class "B" reader.

3. A chest x-ray will be obtained on employment termination.

4. Where medical examinations are preformed, the following information will be provided to the examining physician:

  • The reason for the medical examination.
  • A description of the affected employee’s duties as they relate to the employee’ s exposure.
  • The results of the employee’s exposure measurements, if available.
  • The employee’s anticipated or estimated exposure level.

5. The Safety Office will obtain and furnish the employee with a written opinion from the examining physician containing the following:

  • The signs or symptoms of silica exposure displayed by the employee.
  • A report on the findings of the chest x-ray and PFT test.
  • The physician’s opinion as to whether the employee has any medical condition which would place the employee at increased risk from exposure to silica or would aggravate any medical condition.
  • Any recommended limitation upon the employee’s exposure to silica or upon the use of PPE and respirators.
  • A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of any medical condition which requires further examination or treatment.

6. The written opinion will not reveal specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure to silica.

7.0 Safe Work Practices

1. The primary means of protecting workers will be through the use of less toxic materials, enclosed systems, local exhaust ventilation, wet methods, and good work practices.

2. The following measures will be used to reduce exposure to crystalline silica in the workplace:

  • Wet down the dust at the point of generation.
  • Install local exhaust ventilation to prevent dust from being released into the air.
  • During rock drilling, flow water through the drill stem.
  • Install dust collection systems onto machines or equipment that generated dust.
  • Use concrete/masonry saws that provide water to the blade.

3. Silica sand or other substances containing more than 1% crystalline silica will not be used for abrasive blasting.

4. Good personal hygiene will be practiced to avoid unnecessary exposure. Eating, drinking, use of tobacco products, or applying cosmetics will not be done in areas where there is dust containing crystalline silica.

5. If possible, employees will shower and change into clean clothes before leaving the worksite to prevent contamination of cars, homes, and other work areas.

8.0 Personal Protective Equipment

1. When source controls cannot keep exposures below the PEL, respiratory protection will be used.

2. When respirators are used, the Safety Office will enroll workers in a comprehensive Respiratory Protection Program. Important elements of this program are:

  • Periodic environmental monitoring.
  • Training of personnel.
  • Selection of proper NIOSH approved respirators.
  • An evaluation of the worker’s ability to perform the work while wearing a respirator.
  • Respirator fit testing.
  • Maintenance, inspection, cleaning, and storage of respiratory protection equipment.

3. A respirator approved for protection against crystalline silica-containing dust will be used.

4. If possible, disposable or washable protective clothes will be worn at the worksite.

9.0 Housekeeping Program

Exposed surfaces will be maintained free of accumulation of silica dust. To minimize hazards, the following procedures will be used to clean areas contaminated with dust containing crystalline silica:

  • Clean floors daily with a wet mop, wet pickup vacuum, or a HEPA filtered vacuum cleaner. The most effective method is with a HEPA vacuum cleaner.
  • Never sweep, dry mop, use compressed air, or use a regular vacuum cleaner. Regular vacuum cleaners are not suitable because they filter out heavy particles, allowing the finer more hazardous particles to pass into the air.
  • Clean shelves with a damp sponge or a HEPA vacuum cleaner.
  • Used filters should be carefully placed in a double plastic bag and disposed in the regular trash. Wear the proper respirator when changing filters.

10.0 Training

1. Workers who may be exposed to silica will receive safety training to include the following:

  • Information about the potential health effects of exposure to respirable crystalline silica.
  • Material safety data sheets for silica, masonry products, alternative abrasives, and other hazardous materials.
  • Instruction about the purpose and set-up of regulated areas marking the boundaries of work areas containing crystalline silica.
  • Information about safe handling, labeling, and storage of toxic materials.
  • Discussion about the importance of substitution, engineering controls, work practices, and personal hygiene in reducing crystalline silica exposure.
  • Instruction about the use and care of appropriate personal protective equipment (including protective clothing and respiratory protection).

2. Training will be conducted by the Safety Office. Training records will be kept in the Safety Office for three years.

3. Training will be performed prior to the employee’s assignment to an area where the employee may be exposed to silica. Retraining will be performed if the Safety Manager or supervision believes it is necessary to prevent or reduce exposures.

11.0 Warning Signs

  1. Warning signs will be posted to mark the boundaries of work areas contaminated with crystalline silica. These signs will warn workers about the hazard and specify any protective equipment required.
  2. The sign will contain the following words or similar words: Warning- Crystalline Silica Work Area- Improper handling or exposure to the dust may cause silicosis and death- Respirator Required.